• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2456-8678

International Journal Of Rural Development, Environment And Health Research(IJREH)

A Review of Scavenging as a Means of Environmental Management

Igwe P.U. , Anaje E.C. , Onyegbu C.U. , Ezechilue F.B. , Nwatu M.T.

International Journal of Rural Development, Environment and Health Research(IJREH), Vol-2,Issue-1, January - February 2018, Pages 10-17, 10.22161/ijreh.2.1.2

Download | Downloads : 8 | Total View : 1475


Scavenging as a solid waste management option helps in the reduction of quantum of wastes at dumpsites and expands the life span of landfills. The objective of this paper is to conduct a review of previous works on scavenging as a means of environmental management. The method used is a review of academic/journal articles, internet materials, conference papers and publicly available materials on scavenging as a means of environmental management. Previous authors had a unity of opinion that scavengers recover reusable and recyclables materials (eg. plastics, papers, scraps metals, aluminium) which serve as sources of income for livelihoods. Recommendations of the study includes: (1) safety awareness and health education should be provided to reduce the occupational hazards the scavengers are exposed to in the course of their scavenging activities; (2) people should be made to see scavengers as partners in progress in environmental management which is a collective enterprise; and (3) grants should be given to scavengers to encourage them expand their business considering the role they play in waste management.

Environmental Management, Review, Recycling, Scavenging, Sustainability, Waste Management.

[1] Aboagye-Larbi, H., Acheampong, M., Kyei, S. and Caboo, D.(2014). The Potential Health Hazards Associated with Waste Scavenging in Ghana: A Case Study of Three Selected Dumpsites in Tema Metropolis. International Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology, 2(10):199-209.
[2] Ackerman, F. (2005). Material Flows for a Sustainable City. International Review for Environmental Strategies, 5 (2): 499 – 510.
[3] Adewole, A.T. (2009). Waste Management towards Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Case Study of Lagos State. International NGO Journal, 4 (4):173-179.
[4] Adeyemi, A.O. (2001). Waste Scavenging in Third World Cities: A Case Study in Ilorin City. Inaugural Lecture, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.
[5] Anierobi, C.M., and Efobi, K.O. (2013).Waste Pickers and Urban Solid Waste Management System in Nigerian Cities: Between Sustainable Policy Gap and Survivalist Strategy. Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, 20(1):82-95.
[6] Asibor, I., and Edjere, O. (2017). Assessment of the Activities of Scavengers and their Economic Impacts on Waste Recovery in Warri Metropolis, Delta State Nigeria. International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health, 4(2):22-29.
[7] Cucchiella, F., D’Adamo, I., and Gastaldi, M. (2014). Sustainable Management of Waste-to-Energy Facilities. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 33:719–728.
[8] De Monfort University Leicester. (2012). Sustainable Waste/Sustainable Waste Management. Accessed at:https//torinobyvegwordpress.com/2012/11/19/sustainable-waste-sustainable-waste-management, 20-11-2017.
[9] Ebenezer, O.S. (2014). Scavenging for Wealth or Death? Exploring the Health Risk Associated with Waste Scavenging in Kumasi, Ghana. Journal of Geography, 6(14); 63 – 80.
[10] Ejares, J. A., Paler, M., Kristina O., Aguilar, M.,andErian L.(2014). Socio-Demographic Profile of Scavenging Households in Umapad Dumpsite, Mandaue City Cebu, Philippines. Journal of Sustainable Development Studies, 6(1):175-192.
[11] Elenwo, E.I. (2015). Assessment of the Activities of Scavengers in Obio/Akpor Local Government Areas Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6:272-280.
[12] European Environment Agency (EEA) (2013). Managing Municipal Solid Waste—A Review of Achievements in 32 European Countries. Copenhagen, Denmark.
[13] Ezeah, C., Clive, L.R., Paul, S.P., Mbeng, O.L., and Nzeadibe, T.C. (2014). Evaluation of Public Health Impacts of Waste Scavenging in Abuja Nigeria, Using Q Methodology. Accessed at:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235418470, 22-10-2017.
[14] International Labour Organization (ILO) (2004). Addressing the Exploitation of Children in Scavenging (Waste Picking): A Thematic Evaluation on Action on Child Labour, Geneva, p. 61.
[15] Karagiannidis, A., Kontogianni, S., and Logothetis, D. (2013). Classification and Categorization of Treatment Methods for Ash Generated by Municipal Solid Waste Incineration: A Case for the 2 Greater Metropolitan Regions of Greece. Waste Management, 33:363–372.
[16] Marello, M., and Helwege, A. (2014). Solid Waste Management and Social Inclusion of Waste Pickers: Opportunities and Challenges. Accessed at: http: www. bu.edu/ pardee/files /2014/09/social-inclusion-working-paper.pdf, p. 19.
[17] Martin, O.A. (2012). When Necessity Begets Ingenuity: E-Waste Scavenging as a Livelihood Strategy in Accra, Ghana. African Studies Quarterly, 13:1-21.
[18] Medina, M. (2001). Scavenging in America: Back to the Future? Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 31: 229-240.
[19] Medina, M. (2010). Scrap and Trade: Scavenging Myths. United Nations University; Our world 2.0 [online] New York: UNU (Published 2010) Accessed at: http://ourworld.unu.edu/en/scavenging-from-waste, 20-10-2017.
[20] Moreno-Sanchez, R., Maldonado, J.H., and Sheldon, I. (2003). The Role of Scavengers in a Dynamic Model of Solid-Waste Disposal and Recycling in Developing Countries. Paper presented at the First Latin American and Caribbean Congress on Environmental and Resource Economics. Cartagena deIndia’s, Colombia, pp.1-8.
[21] Nas, P.J.M., and Jaffe, R. (2004). Informal Waste Management: Shifting the Focus from Problem to Potential. Environmental, Development and Sustainability, 6:337-353.
[22] Navarrete-Hernandes, P.J. (2015).Scavenging Revisited: Supporting Scavengers in Santiago de Chile. Paper presented at the RC21 International Conference on The Ideal City: between myth and reality, pp.1-7.
[23] Nzeadibe, T.C., and Iwuoha, H.C. (2008). Informal Waste Recycling in Lagos, Nigeria. Communications in Waste and Resource Management (CWRM), 9(1):24-30.
[24] Ojeda, B., Armijo, C., and Ramirez, B. (2002). Formal and Informal Recovery of Recyclables in Mexicali, Mexico: Handling Alternatives, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 34:273-288.
[25] Okoye, A.C. (2010). Scavenging: A Latent Means ofEnvironmental Sustainable Livelihood. Celebration of Academic Excellence, Festschrift in Honour of professor L.N. Muoghalu, El ‘Demark, pp. 265-269.
[26] Olufayo, O., and Omotosho, B.J. (2007). Waste Scavenging as a Means of Livelihood in South Western Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 4(1):142-146.
[27] Pandey, R., (2004). Sweepers and Scavengers in third World Cities. Department of Human Geography, University of Oslo, pp.3-16.
[28] Santa, M. (2014). Disease and Health Condition of Scavengers in Bangladesh. A Thesis Report Submitted To The Department Of Pharmacy, East West University, Bangladesh, In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of M. Pharm on Clinical Pharmacy and Molecular Pharmacology, pp.1-69.
[29] Tirado–Soto, M.M., and Zamberlan, F.L. (2013). Networks of Recyclable Material Waste–Picker’s Cooperatives: An Alternative for the Solid Waste Management in the City of Rio De Janeiro. Waste Management, 33:1004–1012.
[30] Wilson, D.C., Chinwah, K.,Araba, O., and Cheeseman, C. (2009). Building the Recycling Rate through the Informal Sector. International Journal of Integrated Waste Management, Science and Technology, 29:629-635.
[31] Wilson, D.C., Velis, C., and Cheeseman, C.(2006). Role of Informal Sector Recycling in Waste Management in Developing Countries. Habitat International, 30:797-808.