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International Journal Of Rural Development, Environment And Health Research(IJREH)

A Geographical Information System on Related Environmental Factors of Leptospirosis in Northeastern State Malaysia

Hasnan Arwit Hassan , Aziah Daud , Ahmad Filza Ismail , Noor Rafizah Aminah Aziz , Fairuz A , Mohd Nazri Shafei , Nor Azwany Yaacob , Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohamad

International Journal of Rural Development, Environment and Health Research(IJREH), Vol-2,Issue-1, January - February 2018, Pages 26-36, 10.22161/ijreh.2.1.4

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A cross sectional study was conducted among confirmed leptospirosis cases admitted to hospitals in Northeastern State of Malaysia. A field survey was performed to record the geographical coordinate of these cases. From 82 cases included in this study, male outnumbered female cases with Malay as the predominant race. More than half of the patients were in high risk occupational group. The point pattern analysis showed that the distribution of leptospirosis was clustered with the nearest neighboring index (NNI) value was less than 1 (NNI = 0.67; Z score = -5.65; 99% CI). Twenty nine of the cases (35.4%) lived within 500 meters, 48 (59.8%) within 1000 meters, 59 (71.9%) within 1500 meters, and 74 (90.2%) within 3000 meters from the river. Majority of the cases (67.1%) resided in agriculture land and another 24.4% resided in urban, settlements and associated non-agricultural area. In conclusion, leptospirosis distribution in Northeastern State of Malaysia was in cluster form and occurred throughout the state with no districts spared. The clustered distribution of leptospirosis suggested that there were common risk factors involved in the spread of the disease. In our study, distance from the river and type of land use were the most likely factors that favors the spread of the leptospirosis.

leptospirosis, spatial distribution, environmental risk factors, clustered.

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