• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2456-8678

International Journal Of Rural Development, Environment And Health Research(IJREH)

A Geographical Information System on Related Environmental Factors of Leptospirosis in Northeastern State Malaysia

Hasnan Arwit Hassan , Aziah Daud , Ahmad Filza Ismail , Noor Rafizah Aminah Aziz , Fairuz A , Mohd Nazri Shafei , Nor Azwany Yaacob , Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohamad


International Journal of Rural Development, Environment and Health Research(IJREH), Vol-2,Issue-1, January - February 2018, Pages 26-36, 10.22161/ijreh.2.1.4

Download | Downloads : 8 | Total View : 1328

Share

A cross sectional study was conducted among confirmed leptospirosis cases admitted to hospitals in Northeastern State of Malaysia. A field survey was performed to record the geographical coordinate of these cases. From 82 cases included in this study, male outnumbered female cases with Malay as the predominant race. More than half of the patients were in high risk occupational group. The point pattern analysis showed that the distribution of leptospirosis was clustered with the nearest neighboring index (NNI) value was less than 1 (NNI = 0.67; Z score = -5.65; 99% CI). Twenty nine of the cases (35.4%) lived within 500 meters, 48 (59.8%) within 1000 meters, 59 (71.9%) within 1500 meters, and 74 (90.2%) within 3000 meters from the river. Majority of the cases (67.1%) resided in agriculture land and another 24.4% resided in urban, settlements and associated non-agricultural area. In conclusion, leptospirosis distribution in Northeastern State of Malaysia was in cluster form and occurred throughout the state with no districts spared. The clustered distribution of leptospirosis suggested that there were common risk factors involved in the spread of the disease. In our study, distance from the river and type of land use were the most likely factors that favors the spread of the leptospirosis.

leptospirosis, spatial distribution, environmental risk factors, clustered.

[1] Bailey, T. C. & Gatrell, A. C. (1995) Interactive spatial data analysis. New York, NY, Wiley.
[2] Baker, M. F. and Baker, H. J. (1970). Pathogenic Leptospira in Malaysian surface waters. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 19, 485-492.
[3] Barcellos, C., Lammerhirt, C.B., de Almeida, M.A., dos Santos, E. (2003) Spatial distribution of leptospirosis in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: recovering the ecology of ecological studies. Reports in Public Health, 19(5), 1283-1292.
[4] Bharadwaj, R., Bal, A. M., Joshi, S. A., Kagal, A., Pol, S. S., Garad, G., Arjunwadkar, V., Katti, R. & Katti, R. (2002) An urban outbreak of leptospirosis in Mumbai, India. Japan Journal of Infectious Disease, 55, 194-196.
[5] Cumberland, P., Everard, C. O. R., Wheeler, J. G. & Levett, P. N. (2001) Persistence of anti-leptospiral IgM, IgG and agglutinating antibodies in patients presenting with acute febrile illness in Barbados 1979–1989. European Journal of Epidemiology 17, 601-608.
[6] David, E. (1995) Statistics in Geography. B. Blackwell.
[7] Department of Statistics Malaysia (2011) Population distribution and basic demographic characteristics. Population and housing census of Malaysia 2010 [Online] Available from: http://www.statistics.gov.my/portal/download_Population/files/census2010/Taburan_Penduduk_dan_Ciri-ciri_Asas_Demografi.pdf [Assessed 19/1/2014].
[8] Dora, S. K. T. (1979) Leptospirosis in West Malaysia - Epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis. Malaysian Journal of Pathology, 2, 1-6.
[9] Dutta, T.K. & Christopher, M. (2005) Leptospirosis - An overview. Journal of Association of Physicians of India, 53, 545-551.
[10] Edwards, G. A. & Domm, B. M., (1960) Human Leptospirosis. Medicine, 39, 117-156.
[11] El Jalii, I.M., Bahaman, A. R., Mohd Azmi, M.L. , Mutalib, A. R. (2002) Seroprevalence of human leptospirosis in representative population in Malaysia. Tropical Biomedicine, 19, 97-101.
[12] Esri Inc. (2014) World boundaries and places basemap. [Online] Available from: http://www.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.html?services=a842e359856a4365b1ddf8cc34fde079 [Assessed 19/1/2014].
[13] Figueiredo, C.M., Mourão, A.C., de Oliveira, M.A., Alves, W.R., Ooteman, M.C., Chamone, C.B., Koury, M.C. (2001) Human leptospirosis in Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais, Brazil: a geographic approach. The Journal of the Brazilian Society of Tropical Medicine, 34(4), 331-338.
[14] Flecther, W. (1928) Recent work on leptospirosis, tutsugamushi disease and tropical thypus in the Federal Malay State. Transaction of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 21, 256-288.
[15] Karim, A. R., El Jalii, I., Bahaman, A. R., Andrew, A. T., Ghazally, I. (2003) seroepidemiological study of leptospirosis among the indigenous communities living in the periphery of Crocker Range Park Sabah, Malaysia. ASEAN Review of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation (ARBEC), 1-5.
[16] Khairani, B. and Bahaman, A. R. (1997). Isolation of leptospires from waters and soils in cattle farms. The 9th Veterinary Association Malaysia Scientific Congress, 41-42.
[17] Lim, J. K., Murugaiyah, V. A., Ramli, A., Abdul Rahman, H., Mohamed, N., Shamsudin, N., Tan, J. C. (2011) A Case Study: Leptospirosis In Malaysia. WebmedCentral INFECTIOUS DISEASES 2011;2(12):WMC002764. (Internet communication, 20 December 2011 at http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/2764).
[18] Lim, V.K. (2011) Leptospirosis: a re emerging infection. Malaysian J Pathol, 33(1), 1-5.
[19] Malaysian Meteorological Department (2012) General Climate of Malaysia. [Online], Available from:http://www.met.gov.my/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=75&Itemid=1089 [Assessed 30/4/12].
[20] Malaysian Remote Sensing Agency (2006) Malaysian Remote Sensing Agency, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation official portal. [Online] Available from http://www.remotesensing.gov.my/portalarsm/index.php?option=com_content&view=frontpage&Itemid=12&lang=en [Assessed 30/4/12].
[21] Walter Francisco Quezada Moreno, Walter David Quezada Torres, Erenio González Suárez, Marcia Judith Torres Tambo, Franklin Antonio Molina Borja, Nancy Fabiola Moreano Terán, Amaury Pérez Martinez, P.(2017).Life Cycle Analysis of the panela agroindustry: Intensification for its development. International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology(ISSN: 2456-1878).2(5), 2659-2666.10.22161/ijeab/2.5.48
[22] Mayer, J. D. (1983) The role of spatial analysis and geographic data in the detection of disease causation. Social Science & Medicine, 17, 1213-1221.
[23] Michael, J. T., Thomas, A. H., Mark, C. B., Ross, J. C., Maggie, O., Justine, L. E. A., Gary, S., Matt, J. K. (2010) Impact of spatial clustering on disease transmission and optimal control. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(3), 1041–1046.
[24] Miller, D. A., Wilson, M. A., Beran, G. W. (1991) Relationships between prevalence of Leptospira interrogans in cattle, and regional, climatic, and seasonal factors. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 52, 1766-1768.
[25] Ministry of Health Malaysia (MOH) (2011) Guidelines for the diagnosis, management, prevention and control of leptospirosis in Malaysia, 1-41.
[26] Moore, D. A. & Carpenter, T. E. (1999) Spatial analytical methods and geographic information systems: use in health research and epidemiology. Epidemiologic reviews, 21, 143-61.
[27] Narita, M., Fujitani, S., David, A. H., David, L. P. (2005) Leptospirosis after recreational exposure to water in the Yaeyama Islands, Japan. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 73(4), 652-656.
[28] Noor Rafizah, A. A., Aziah, B. D., Azwany, Y. N., Imran, M. K., Rusli, A. M., Nazri, S. M., Nikman, A. M., Nabilah, I., Asma', H. S., Zahiruddin, W. M., Zaliha, I. (2013) A hospital-based study on seroprevalence of leptospirosis among febrile cases in Northeastern Malaysia. Int. Journal of Inf. Diseases 17, e394-397
[29] Paul, N. L. (2001) Leptospirosis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 14 (2), 296-325.
[30] Pradutkanchana, J., Pradutkanchana, S., Kemapanmanus, M., Wuthipum, N. & Silpapojakul, K. (2003) The etiology of acute pyrexia of unknown origin in children after a flood. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 34, 175-178.
[31] Reis, R.B., Ribeiro, G.S., Felzemburgh, R. D. M., Santana, F.S., Mohr, S., et al. (2008) Impact of Environment and Social Gradient on Leptospira Infection in Urban Slums. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2(4): e228. (Internet communication, 15 December 2011 at http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228).
[32] Robinson, G. M., (1998) Methods and techniques in human geography. Chichester. John Wiley & Sons.
[33] Sanders, E. J., Rigau-Perez, J. G., Smits, H. L., Deseda, C. C., Vorndam, V. A., Aye, T., Spiegel, R. A., Weyant, R. S. & Bragg, S. L. (1999) Increase of leptospirosis in dengue-negative patients after a hurricane in Puerto Rico in 1996 [correction of 1966]. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 61, 399-404.
[34] Siraj MohamadAli Sheikh, Zakiuddin Syed Kazi, P.(2016).Technologies for Oil Extraction: A Review. International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology(ISSN: 2456-1878).1(2), 106-110
[35] Sudaryo, M. K., Pambudi, E. P., le Polian de Waroux, O., Prameswari, M. F., Mahkota, R., Louis, V. R., Guha-Sapir, D. (2009) Spatial analysis of environmental factors for leptospirosis outbreak during the February 2007 floods in Jakarta, Indonesia. PBC Conference in Perth, November 2009.
[36] Suttinont, C., Losuwanaluk, K., Niwatayakul, K., Hoontrakul, S., Intaranongpai, W., Silpasakorn, S., Suwancharoen, D., Panlar, P., Saisongkorh, W., Rolain, J. M., Raoult, D. & Supputtamongkol, Y. (2006) Causes of acute, undifferentiated, febrile illness in rural Thailand: results of a prospective observational study. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 100, 363-370.
[37] Tan, D. S. K. (1970a) Leptospirosis in rural West Malaysia. The Medical journal of Malaya, 24, 261-266.
[38] Tan, D. S. K. (1970b). Leptospirosis in the ricefields of West Malaysia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 1, 483-491.
[39] Tangkanakul, W., Smits, H. L., Jatanasen, S., Ashford, D. A. (2005) Leptospirosis: An emerging health problem in Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 36(2), 281-288.
[40] Tangkanakul, W., Tharmaphornpil, P., Brian, D. P., Bragg, S., Poonsuksombat, D., Choomkasien, P., Darika, K., David, A. A. (2000) Risk factors associated with leptospirosis in northeastern Thailand, 1998. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 63(3,4), 204-208.
[41] Tassinari, W. S., Pellegrini, D. C. P., Claudio, B. P. S., Reis, R. B., Albert, I. K., Carvalho, M. S. (2008) Detection and modelling of case clusters for urban leptospirosis. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 13, 503–512.
[42] Thammakumpee, K., Silpapojakul, K. & Borrirak, B. (2005) Leptospirosis and its pulmonary complications. Respirology, 10, 656-659.
[43] USGS, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Poster, (2007) (Internet communication, 22 February 2007 at http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/gis_poster/index.html
[44] Victoriano, A., Smythe, L., Gloriani-Barzaga, N., Cavinta, L., Kasai, T., Limpakarnjanarat, K., Ong, B., Gongal, G., Hall, J., Coulombe, C., Yanagihara, Y., Yoshida, S.-I. & Adler, B. (2009) Leptospirosis in the Asia Pacific region. BMC Infectious Diseases, 9, 147.