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International Journal Of Medical, Pharmacy And Drug Research(IJMPD)

Role of Epigenetic Factors in Cancer Formation: A Review

Shajeda Akter Nishat , Mohammad Morshad Alam , Abrar Wahab

International Journal of Medical, Pharmacy and Drug Research(IJMPD), Vol-1,Issue-3, September - October 2017, Pages 1-5 ,

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Epigeneticsrefers to the mechanisms that alter gene expression without altering the primary DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications are commonly described as important players in cancer progression. They comprise DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, and small, noncoding microRNAs. The information carried by epigenetic modifications plays a critical part in the regulation of all DNA-based events, such as transcription, DNA repair, and replication. Abnormal expression patterns or genomic modifications in chromatin regulators can have intense results and can lead to the induction and maintenance of various cancers. Epigenetics also represents an attractive opportunity of reverting cancer-specific alterations, which may leadto a possibility of stopping this disease. Epigenetic changes have been identified as putative cancer biomarkers for early detection, disease monitoring, prognosis, and risk assessment. Emerging findings in this area are contributing to cancer management and monitoring, and further progress is expected.

Cancer; epigenetics; DNA methylation; histones modifications; microRNA; epigenetic therapy.

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