• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2456-8678

International Journal Of Rural Development, Environment And Health Research(IJREH)

The Investigation of Snake-phobia Management by the Inhabitants of the City of Kumba, Southwest Region, Cameroon

Melle Ekane Maurice , Nkwatoh Athanasius Fuashi , Esong Lionel Ebong , Mbole Veronique , Ngome Laura Mesame , Chokeh Irene Chutame

International Journal of Rural Development, Environment and Health Research(IJREH), Vol-2,Issue-3, May - June 2018, Pages 20-30, 10.22161/ijreh.2.3.3

Download | Downloads : 6 | Total View : 1884


Humans have had a long standing history of interaction hostility with snakes, and most snakes have been killed by this interaction in Cameroon and many other parts of the world. Basic education on snake conservation importance has to be provided to the communities to avoid unnecessary killing of snakes. The objective of this survey is to investigate the management of snake-phobia by the inhabitants of the city of Kumba. The research data collection witnessed the administration of two hundred and fifty questionnaires in the study area to a randomly selected population sample. The results recorded a significant association between Gender and snake phobia (X2 = 17.725 df=1, P<0.05. Inaddition, there is a positive correlation between Profession and the knowledge people on non venomous snakes (R2 = 0.446, P<0.05). Moreover, the survey revealed a significant link between the Age Category and Snake-phobia (X2 = 16.134 df=2, P<0.05). Furthermore, there exist a significant association between the snake phobia and human reaction at snake sight (X2 = 16.521 df=3, P<0.05). A respondent score of 70.15% is recorded on snake phobia. A respondent score of 56.72% is recorded on Black cobra, as a snake most commonly seen in the study area. Snakes are not human enemies, rather are important for human existence, ecologically and biomedically, hence their killing must be avoided during interactions. There need to be a public educational programme on the education of snakes species and behaviour to reduce and eliminate human snake-phobia. It is also very important to know that the existence of snakes should never be mystified, so many species commonly seen around like green tree snake (Dendrelaphis punctulata) are non venomous.

Snake-phobia, Non-venomous snakes, Green-tree snake, Profession, Humans.

[1] Alves RRN (2015), Souto WMS. Ethnozoology: a brief introduction. Ethnobiol Conserv. 2015;4(1):1–13.
[2] Alves RRN (2012). Albuquerque UP. Ethnobiology and conservation: why do we need a new journal? Ethnobiol Conserv. 2012;1:1–3.
[3] Alves RRN (2012). Relationships between fauna and people and the role of ethnozoology in animal conservation. Ethnobiol Conserv. 2012;1:1–69.
[4] Alves RRN (2008), Vieira WLS, Santana GG.(2008). Reptiles used in traditional folk medicine: conservation implications. Biodivers Conserv. 2008;17(8):2037–49. doi: 10.1007/s10531-007-9305-0.
[5] Alves RRN,& Souto WMS(2015). Ethnozoology: a brief introduction. Ethnobiol Conserv. 2015;4(1):1–13.Google Scholar
[6] Alves RRN, & Vieira WLS,(2008). Santana GG. Reptiles used in traditional folk medicine: conservation implications. Biodivers Conserv. 2008;17(8):2037–49. doi:10.1007/s10531-007-9305-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
[7] Beaupre SJ, &.Douglas LE.(2008). Snakes as indicators and monitors of ecosystem properties. In: Mullin SJ, Seigel RA, editors. Snakes: ecology and conservation. New York and London: Comstock Publishing Associates, a Division of Cornell University Press; 2009. p. 244–61.Google Scholar
[8] Blanchette, I. (2006). Snakes, spiders, guns, and syringes: how specific are volutionary constraints on the detection of threatening stimuli? The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 59:1484-1504.
[9] Boehm M, Collen B, Baillie JEM, Bowles P, Chanson J, Cox N, et al (2013). The conservation status of the world’s reptiles. Biol Conserv. 2013;157:372–85.Google Scholar
[10] Brown PR, Nyunt-Yee, Singleton GR, Kenney AJ, Nyo-Me-Htwe, Myo-Myint,(2008). Than-Aye. Farmers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices for rodent management in Myanmar. Intl J Pest Manag. 2008;54(1):69–76.Google Scholar
[11] Chappuis F, Sharma SK, Jha N, Loutan L, Bovier P,A (2007). Protection against snake bites by sleeping under a bed net in southeastern Nepal. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007; 77(1):197-9.
[12] Constantine, R., R. J. McNally, and C. D. Hornig. (2001). Snake fear and the pictorial emotional Stroop paradigm. Cognitive Therapy and Research 25:757-764.
[13] Cook, M. and S. Mineka. (1990). Selective associations in the observational conditioning of fear in rhesus monkeys. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 16:372-389.
[14] Gibbons, J. W. and M. E. Dorcas.( 2005). Snakes of the southeast. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
[15] Gibbons JW, Scott DE, Ryan TJ, Buhlmann KA, Tuberville TD, Metts BS, Greene JL, Mills T, Leiden Y, Poppy S.(2000). The global decline of reptiles, déjà vu amphibians. Bioscience. 2000;50(8):653–66.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
[16] Godley JS,& Moler PE.(2013). Population declines of Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi) over three decades in the gulf Hammock Wildlife Management Area, Florida, USA. Herpetol Conserv Biol. 2013;8(2):359–65.Google Scholar
[17] Harris, A., Marquis, P., Eriksen, H.R., Grany, I., Corbett, R., Lie, S.A., Ursin, H., (2010). Diurnal rhythm in British Antarctic personnel. Rural and Remote Health 10, 2
[18] Isbell, L. A. (2006). Snakes as agents of evolutionary change in primate brains. Journal of Human Evolution 51:1-35.
[19] Kotliar NB, Baker BW, Whicker AD, Plumb G.(1999). A critical review of assumptions about the prairie dog as a keystone species. Environ Manag. 1999;24(2):177–92.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
[20] Kumba Urban Council (2005). The Map of Kumba Urban Council
[21] LoBue, V. and J. S. DeLoache. (2008). Detecting the snake in the grass: attention to fear-relevant stimuli by adults and young children. Psychological Science 19:in press.
[22] Meerburg BG, & Kijlstra A.(2007). Role of rodents in transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter. J Sci Food Agric. 2007;87(15):2774–81.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
[23] Meerburg BG, Singleton GR, Kijlstra A.(2009). Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2009;35(3):221–70.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
[24] Meerburg BG, Singleton GR, Leirs H.(2009). The year of the rat ends - time to fight hunger! Pest Manag Sci. 2009;65(4):351–52.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
[25] Miller H. The cobra, India’s “good snake”. Natl Geogr. (1970);138:393–409.Google Scholar
[26] Melle, E. M.and Ewane H. N. (2015). The evaluation of bush-meat consumption in Matoh Butu, Kumba, Southwest Region, Cameroon, pp. 23-24
[27] Mendonça LET, Vieira WLS, Alves RRN.(2014). Caatinga ethnoherpetology: relationships between herpetofauna and people in a semiarid region. Amphibian and Reptile Conserv. 2014;8(1):24–32.
[28] Miller H (1970). The cobra, India’s “good snake” Natl Geogr. 1970;138:393–409.
[29] Mills LS, Soulé ME, Doak DF.(1993). The keystone-species concept in ecology and conservation. Bioscience. 1993;43(4):219–24.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
[30] Moura MR, Costa HC, São-Pedro VA, Fernandes VD, Feio RN.(2010). The relationship between people and snakes in eastern Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 2010;10(4):133–41.
[31] Ndam, N.; (1998). Tree regeneration. Vegetation dynamics and maintenance of biodiversity on Mount Cameroon: the relative impact of natural and human disturbance. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Wales
[32] Ndam, N., Healey, H. J., Cheek, M., Fraser, P. (2002). Plant recovery on the 1922 and 1959 Lava flows on the on the Mount Cameroon, Cameroon. Syst. Geogr. Pl., 71: 1023-1032
[33] Nkeng. Philip, (2009). Assessment of Prunus africana bark exploitation methods and sustainable exploitation in the South west, North-West and Adamaoua regions of Cameroon
[34] Ohman, A. (2007). Has evolution primed humans to “beware the beast”? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:16396-16397.
[35] Ohman, A. (2005). The role of the amygdala in human fear: automatic detection of threat. Psychoneuroendocrinology 30:953-958.
[36] Ohman, A. and S. Mineka. (2003). The malicious serpent: snakes as a prototypical stimulus for an evolved module of fear. Current Directions in Psychological Science 12:5-9.
[37] Ohman, A. and S. Mineka. (2001). Fears, phobias, and preparedness: toward an evolved module of fear and learning. Psychological Review 108:483-522
[38] Ohman, A., A. Flykt, and F. Esteves. (2001). Emotion drives attention: detecting the snake in the grass. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130:466-478.
[39] Pandey DP.(2015). Venomous snakes of medical relevance in Nepal: study on species, epidemiology of snake bite and assessment of risk factors of envenoming and death. Frankfurt: Goethe University; 2015. Available in: http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/38272. Accessed 15 Dec 2016.
[40] Saini RK et al.(1988). Snake bite poisoning presenting as early morning neuroparalytic symptoms in jhuggi dwellers. J Assoc Physns India. 1986; 34: 415-417.
[41] Sasaki K, Sasaki Y, Fox SF.(2015). Endangered traditional beliefs in Japan: influences on snake conservation. Herpetol Conserv Biol. 2010;5(3):474–85.
[42] Sasaki K, Sasaki Y, Fox SF.(2010). Endangered traditional beliefs in Japan: influences on snake conservation. Herpetol Conserv Biol. 2010;5(3):474–85.Google Scholar
[43] Seigel RA,& Mullin SJ.(2009). Snake conservation, present and future. In: Mullin SJ, Seigel RA, editors. Snakes, ecology and conservation. Ithca and London: Comstock Publishing Associates, a Division of Cornell University Press; 2009. p. 281–90.Google Scholar
[44] Somaweera R, Somaweera N.(2010). Serpents in jars: the snake wine industry in Vietnam. JoTT. 2010;2(11):1251–60.
[45] Whitaker PB, &.Shine R.(2000). Sources of mortality of large elapid snakes in an agricultural landscape. J Herpetol. 2000;34(1):121–28.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
[46] World Health Organisation (2010). Guideline for the management of snake –bites. World health Organisation Regional Office for South-East Asia