• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2456-8678

International Journal Of Rural Development, Environment And Health Research(IJREH)

An Exploration of Bats Consumption Behaviour and the Awareness of Zoonotic Diseases in Bamenda, Northwest Region, Cameroon

Melle Ekane Maurice , Nkwatoh Athanasius Fuashi , Olle Ambe Flaubert , Ekabe Quenter Mbinde , Chah Nestor Mbah

International Journal of Rural Development, Environment and Health Research(IJREH), Vol-1,Issue-3, September - October 2017, Pages 89-101, 10.22161/ijreh.1.3.10

Download | Downloads : 15 | Total View : 1132


The recent increase in zoonotic viral disease outbreaks among humans have mainly been accounted to human bushmeat consumption. Many of the recently emerging highly virulent zoonotic diseases like Ebola have a likely bat origin. The study has shown a significant relationship, X2 = 23.870 df = 1 at P < 0.05 on the killing of bats due to their zoonotic diseases. Inaddition, the study revealed a positive correlation, R2 = 0.972 at P = 0.05 on bats killing due to their nuisance. The research has also shown a significant relationship, X2 = 10.848 df = 3 at P = 0.013 on the killing of bats to control their population. The research has shown a correlation R2 = 0.312 at P < 0.05 on the prevention of bats population increase. The results further revealed that bats are well known (54.23%) in zoonotic disease transmission. Moreso, the study showed that many people kill these animals for food (51.41%) though they know very well that they might be infected with zoonotic diseases by eating them. Educational efforts are needed in order to prevent future spillovers of bat-borne viruses to humans, and to further protect bats from unnecessary and destruction. The national government of Cameroon can use the prevention of bats consumption campaigns due to their zoonotic infection to enhance the conservation of bats.

Ebola, Zoonotic diseases, Bat consumption, disease transmission, Conservation.

[1] Ajabji, S., Tendem, P. and Nkembi, L. (2008). A socio-economic report for the Bechati Fossimondi-Besali forest adjacent villages. Final project report submitted to WWF Netherland, US Fish and Wildlife Service and Tusk Trust UK. Buea, Cameroon.
[2] Allen GM (2004) Bats: biology, behavior, and folklore. Dover Publications
[3] Amman BR, Carroll SA, Reed ZD et al (2012) Seasonal pulses of Marburg virus circulation in juvenile Rousettus aegyptiacusbats coincide with periods of increased risk of human infection. PLoS Pathog 8:e1002877
[4] Bamenda City Council (2011). The Map of Bamenda City Council.
[5] Bausch DG, Schwarz L (2014) Outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea: where ecology meets economy. PLoS Neglected Trop Dis 8(7):e3056.
[6] Bisson, I., Safi, K. & Holland, R.A. (2009). Evidence for repeated independent evolution of migration in the largest family of bats. Public Library of Science ONE,4(10): e7504
[7] Blehert, D.S., Hicks, A.C., Behr, M., Meteyer, C.U., Berlowski-Zier, B.M., Buckles, E.L., Coleman, J.T., Darling, S.R., Gargas, A., Niver, R., Okoniewski, J.C., Rudd, R.J. & Stone, W.B. (2009). Bat white-nose syndrome: an emerging fungal pathogen? Science, 323(5911): 227.
[8] Breed AC, Field HE, Epstein JH, Daszak P (2006) Emerging henipaviruses and flying foxes–conservation and management perspectives. Biol Conserv 131(2):211–220
[9] Booth C (2005) Time to stop the killing. The Australasian Bat Society Newsletter 24.
[10] Breed AC, Field HE, Epstein JH, Daszak P (2006) Emerging henipaviruses and flying foxes–conservation and management perspectives. Biol Conserv 131(2):211–220.
[11] Brook CE, Dobson AP (2015) Bats as ‘special’ reservoirs for emerging zoonotic pathogens. Trends Microbiol 23:172–180
[12] Calisher, C.H., Childs, J.E., Field, H.E., Holmes, K.V. & Schountz, T.(2006). Bats: important reservoir hosts of emerging viruses. Clin. Microbiol. Rev.,19: 531-545. Chen, H., Smith,G.J., Li, K.S, Wang, J., Fan, X.H., Rayner, J.M., Vija.
[13] Chen L, Liu B, Yang J, Jin Q (2014) DBatVir: the database of bat-associated viruses. Database:bau 021.
[14] Chen, H., Smith,G.J., Li, K.S, Wang, J., Fan, X.H., Rayner, J.M., Vijaykrishna, D., Zhang, J.X., Zhang, L.J., Guo, C.T. Cheung, C.L., Xu, K.M., Duan, L., Huang, K., Qin, K., Leung, Y.H., Wu, W.L., Lu, H.R., Chen, Y., Xia, N.S., Naipospos, T.S., Yuen, K.Y., Hassan, S.S., Bahri, S., Nguyen, T.D., Webster, R.G., Peiris, J.S. & Guan, Y. (2006). Establishment of multiple
[15] Choisy M, Rohani P (2006) Harvesting can increase severity of wildlife disease epidemics. Proc R Soc B: Biol Sci 273(1597):2025–2034
[16] Chomel, B.B., Belotto, A. & Meslin, F.-X. (2007). Wildlife, exotic pets, and emerging zoonoses. Emerging Infectious Diseases,13(1): 6-11.
[17] Chua KB, Goh KJ, Wong KT et al (1999) Fatal encephalitis due to Nipah virus among pig-farmers in Malaysia. Lancet 354(9186):1257–1259
[18] Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD (2001) Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife. Acta Trop 78:103–116
[19] Daszak P, Plowright R, Epstein J et al (2006) The emergence of Nipah and Hendra virus: pathogen dynamics across a wildlife-livestock-human continuum. Dis Ecol: Community Struct Pathog Dyn: 186–201
[20] Donnelly CA, Woodroffe R, Cox D et al (2005) Positive and negative effects of widespread badger culling on tuberculosis in cattle. Nature 439(7078):843–846
[21] Epstein J.H, Field H.E, Luby S, Pulliam JR, Daszak P (2006) Nipah virus: impact, origins, and causes of emergence. Curr Infect Dis Rep 8(1):59–65
[22] Epstein J.H, Olival KJ, Pulliam J.R.C (2009) Pteropus vampyrus, a hunted migratory species with a multinational home-range and a need for ro regional management. J Appl Ecol 46:991–1002
[23] Fenton MB (1997) Science and the conservation of bats. J Mammal: 1–14
[24] Field H, Young P, Yob JM, Mills J, Hall L, Mackenzie J (2001) The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes Infect 3(4):307–314.
[25] Furey N, Racey P (2016) Conservation ecology of cave bats. In: Voigt, CC, Kingston, T (eds) Bats in the Anthropocene: conservation of bats in a changing world. Springer International AG, Cham, pp. 463–492
[26] Gatherer D (2014) The 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. J Gen Virol: vir 0.067199-067190
[27] Ghanem SJ, Voigt CC (2012) Increasing awareness of ecosystem services provided by bats. Adv Study Behav 44:279–302
[28] Gonzalez J-P, Herbreteau V, Morvan J, Leroy EM (2005) Ebola virus circulation in Africa: a balance between clinical expression and epidemiological silence. Bull de la Société de Pathol Exotique 98(3):210–217
[29] Hutson AM, Mickleburgh SP (2001) Microchiropteran bats: global status survey and conservation action plan, vol 56. IUCN.
[30] IUCN.(2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species,version 2010.3. mammals.
[31] Jacob H, Solcher H (1968) An infectious disease transmitted by Cercopithecus ethiops(“marburg disease”) with glial nodule encephalitis. Acta Neuropathol 11(1):29.
[32] Jenkins, R.K.B. & Racey P.A. (2008). Bats as bushmeat in Madagascar. Madagascar Conservation and Development,3: 22-30.
[33] Jones, K.E., Patel, N.G., Levy, M.A., Storeygard, A., Balk, D., Gittleman, J.L. & Daszak, P. (2008). Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature, 451(7181): 990-993.
[34] Kamins AO, Rowcliffe J.M, Ntiamoa-Baidu Y, Cunningham AA, Wood JL, Restif O (2014) Characteristics and risk perceptions of Ghanaians potentially exposed to bat-borne zoonoses through bushmeat. EcoHealth:1–17
[35] Kellert, S.R. (1980). Americans’ attitudes and knowledge of animals. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference, 45: 111-124
[36] Kingston T (2016). Cute, Creepy, or Crispy–how values, attitudes and norms shape human behavior toward bats. In: Voigt, CC, Kingston, T (eds) Bats in the anthropocene: conservation of bats in a changing world. Springer International AG, Cham, pp. 571–588
[37] Knight AJ (2008) “Bats, snakes and spiders, Oh my!” How aesthetic and negativistic attitudes, and other concepts predict support for species protection. J Environ Psychol 28(1):94–103.
[38] Kunz, T.H.(1982). Roosting ecology of bats. InT.H. Kunz. Ecology of bats,pp. 1-55. New York, Plenum Press.
[39] Kunz, T.H. & Pierson, E.D.1994. Bats of the world: an introduction. In R.M. Nowak. Walker’s bats of the world,pp. 1-46. Baltimore, Maryland, USA and London, Johns Hopkins University Press.
[40] Li Y, Chen S (2014) Evolutionary history of Ebola virus. Epidemiol Infect 142(06):1138–1145
[41] Li W, Shi Z, Yu M. (2005) Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science 310(5748):676–679
[42] Leroy EM, Epelboin A, Mondonge V et al (2009) Human Ebola outbreak resulting from direct exposure to fruit bats in Luebo, democratic Republic of Congo, 2007. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dis 9(6):723–728
[43] Lederberg, J., Shope, R.E. & Oaks, S.C., eds.(1992). Emerging infections: microbial threats to health in the United States.Washington, DC, National Academy Press.
[44] Mackenzie, J., Field, H. & Guyatt, K.(2003). Managing emerging diseases borne by fruit bats (flying foxes) with particular reference to henipaviruses and Australian bat lyssavirus. Journal of Applied Microbiology,94.
[45] Mayen F (2003) Haematophagous bats in Brazil, their role in rabies transmission, impact on public health, livestock industry and alternatives to an indiscriminate reduction of bat population. J Vet Med Ser B 50(10):469–472
[46] Medellin RA (2003) Diversity and conservation of bats in Mexico: research priorities, strategies and Actions. Wildl Soc Bull 31:87–97
[47] Mickleburgh, S.P., Hutson, A.M. & Racey, P.A. (1992). Old World fruit bats: an action plan for their conservation.Gland, Switzerland, IUCN.
[48] Mickleburgh SP, Hutson AM, Racey PA (2002) A review of the global conservation status of bats. Oryx 36(01):18–34
[49] Mickleburgh S, Waylen K, Racey P (2009) Bats as bushmeat: a global review. Oryx 43(02):217–234
[50] Mildenstein, T.L. (2002). Habitat selection of large flying foxes using radio telemetry: Targeting conservation efforts in Subic Bay, Philippines. University of Montana.
[51] Mildenstein T, Tanshi I, Racey PA (2016) Exploitation of bats for bushmeat and medicine. In: Voigt, CC, Kingston, T (eds) Bats in the Anthropocene: conservation of bats in a changing world. Springer International AG, Cham, pp 325–376.
[52] Mildenstein, T.L., Stier, S.C., Nuevo-Diego, C.E. & Mills, L.S. (2005). Habitat selection of endangered and endemic large flying-foxes in Subic Bay, Philippines. Biological Conservation, 126(1): 93-102.
[53] Morens, D.M., Folkers, G.K. & Fauci, A.S. (2004). The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Nature, 430(6996): 242-249.
[54] Morse, S.S. (1995). Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg. Infect. Dis.,1(1): 7-15.
[55] Olival KJ, Hayman DTS (2014) Filoviruses in bats: current knowledge and future directions. Viruses 6:1759–1788.
[56] Paul Barnes (2013). An assessment of human attitude and behaviour towards the critically endangered Pteropus rodricensis page 27
[57] Pooley S, Fa JE, Nasi R (2015) No conservation silver lining to Ebola. Conserv Biol 29(3):965–967.
[58] Pourrut X, Kumulungui B, Wittmann T et al (2005) The natural history of Ebola virus in Africa. Microbes Infect/Inst Pasteur 7:1005–1014
[59] Quammen D (2013) Spillover: animal infections and the next human pandemic. WW Norton & Company
[60] Roberts BJ, Catterall CP, Eby P, Kanowski J (2012) Long-distance and frequent movements of the flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus: implications for management. PLoS ONE 7:e42532.
[61] Saéz A.M, Weiss S, Nowak K, Lapeyre V, Zimmermann F et al (2015) Investigating the zoonotic origin of the West African Ebola epidemic. EMBO Mol Med 7(1):17–23.
[62] Schneider MC, Romijn PC, Uieda W et al (2009) Rabies transmitted by vampire bats to humans: an emerging zoonotic disease in Latin America? Rev panam de salud pública 25:260–269.
[63] Streicker DG, Recuenco S, Valderrama W et al (2012) Ecological and anthropogenic drivers of rabies exposure in vampire bats: implications for transmission and control. Proc R Soc B 279:3384–3392.
[64] Sulkin, S. & Allen, R.(1974). Virus infections in bats. Monographs in Virology, 8: 1-103.
[65] Swensson, J.2005. Bushmeat trade in Techiman, Ghana, West Africa.Uppsala, Sweden, Uppsala University.
[66] Taylor, L.H., Latham, S.M. & Woolhouse, M.E.J. (2001). Risk factors for human disease emergence. Royal Society Philosophical Transactions Biological Sciences,356(1411): 983-989.
[67] Towner JS, Amman BR, Sealy TK et al (2009) Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats. PLoS Pathog 5:e1000536
[68] Turmelle, A.S. & Olival, K.J.(2009). Correlates of viral richness in bats (order Chiroptera). Ecohealth,6(4): 522-539.
[69] Vogel G (2014) Are bats spreading ebola across sub-saharan Africa? Science 344:140
[70] Woolhouse, M.E. & Gowtage-Sequeria, S.(2005). Host range and emerging and reemerging pathogens. Emerg. Infect. Dis.,11(12): 1842-1847
[71] Worobey, M., Gemmel, M., Teuwen, D.E., Haselkorn, T., Kunstman, K., Bunce, M., Muyembe, J.J., Kabongo, J.M., Kalengayi, R.M., Van Marck, E., Gilbert, M.T. & Wolinsky, S.M. (2008). Direct evidence of extensive diversity of HIV-1 in Kinshasa by 1960. Nature,455(7213): 661-664.
[72] World Health Organization (2014) Ebola virus disease, Fact Sheet. (http://www.who.int/mediace ntre/factsheets/fs103/en).
[73] Wibbelt, G., Moore, M.S., Schountz, T. & Voigt, C.C. (2010). Emerging diseases in Chiroptera: why bats? Biol. Lett.,6(4): 438-440. Woolhouse, M.E. & Gowtage-Sequeri sublineages of H5N1 influenza virus in Asia: implications for pandemic control. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,103(8): 2845-2850.
[74] Yuninui N.M (1990).Initiation practical report on Bambili Village. A research report, Regional College of Agriculture, Bambili. Cameroon.
[75] Zhou, J.Y., Hui-Gang, S., Chen, H.X., Tong, G.Z., Liao, M., Yang, H.C. & Liu, J.X.(2006). Characterization of a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus derived from bar-headed geese in China. Journal of General Virology, 87: 1823-1833