• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2456-8678

International Journal Of Rural Development, Environment And Health Research(IJREH)

A Review of Vegetation Cover as a Natural Factor to Soil Erosion

Igwe P.U. , Ezeukwu J.C. , Edoka N.E. , Ejie O.C. , Ifi G.I.

International Journal of Rural Development, Environment and Health Research(IJREH), Vol-1,Issue-4, November - December 2017, Pages 21-28, 10.22161/ijreh.1.4.4

Download | Downloads : 6 | Total View : 2079


Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem driven by a number of both natural and anthropogenic factors. The objective of this paper is to conduct a review of previous works on vegetation cover as a natural factor of soil erosion. The study made a review of academic/journal articles, internet materials, conference papers, books and publicly available materials on vegetation as a factor of soil erosion. From the review, previous authors had a unity of opinion that vegetation cover is an important index to evaluate the soils’ sensivity to erosion. Uncovering the soil exposes it to the vagaries of erosion ranging from rainsplash to gully erosion that may be irreversible in forms of badlands. Recommendations of the study include: (1) making legislations mandating landholders to cover their soils using mainly economic trees as a source of livelihoods as well as protecting the soil against the forces of raindrops and runoff; (2) agroforestry by farmers and reforestation programme by governments to increase vegetation cover of soils so as to reduce the impact of raindrops and runoff that detach and transport soil particles; and (3) creation of awareness among the generality of the populace on the importance of vegetation in protecting the soil against erosion and maintaining the world’s climate.

Plant Roots, Rainfall, Review, Soil Erosion, Sustainable Development, Vegetation Cover.

[1] Adinna, E.A. (2001).Environmental Hazards and Management, Snap Press limited, Enugu.
[2] Ahnert, F. (2003). Einfulhurung in Die Geormorphologie, 3rd Edition UTB Stuttgart, p.440.
[3] Bakker, M.M. (2007). The Effect of Soil Erosion on Europe Crop Yield. Ecosystem, 10:1209-1219.
[4] Beven, K. (2002). Runoff Generation in Semi-Arid Areas, In: Dry Land Rivers: Hydrology and Geomorphology of Semi- Arid Channel, in: Bull, L.J., Kirkby, M.J., (Eds), Wiley and Sons, pp.57-105.
[5] Blanco-Canqui, H., and Lal, R. (2008). Corn Stover Removal Impact on Micro-Scale, Soil Physical Properties Geoderma, 145:335-346.
[6] Bochet, E, and Gracia- Fayos, P. (2004). Factor Controlling Vegetation Establishment and Water on Motor Way Slopes. Restoration Ecology, 12(2): 166-174.
[7] Bochet, E., Poesen, J.,and Rubio, J.L. (2006). Runoff and Soil Loss under Individual Plants of a Semi-Arid Mediterranean Shrub Land: Influence of Plant Morphology and Rainfall Intensity. Earth Surface Processes Land, 31:536-549.
[8] Brevik, E.C. (2013).Soil and Human Health- An Overview. In: Soil, Health and Human, Brevik E.C.Burges L.C. Eds, CRC Press; Boca Ration FL, USA, pp.29-36
[9] De- Baets, S., Poesen, J., Knappen, A., Barbera, G.G., and Navarro, J.A.(2007). Root Characteristics of Representative Mediterranean Plant Species and Their Erosion Reducing Potential During Concentrated Runoff. Plant Soil, 294:169-183.
[10] Egbai, O.O., Ndik E., J.I., and Ogogo, A.U. (2012). Influence of Soil Textural Properties and Land Use Cover, Type of Soil Erosion in Betem, Cross-River state, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, 5(7):104-110.
[11] Eyankware, R.O., Eyankware, M.O., and Effam, S.C. (2015). Soil Erodibility Assessment in Selected Parts of Ekwusigo Local Government Area of Anambra State, South- Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research, 13:50-62.
[12] Eswarant, H., Lal, R., and Reich, P.F.(2001). Land Degradation: An Overview. Accessed at: http//ww.nres.usda/gov/technical/world soils/paper/land-degradation- Overview.html on 20 11 2017.
[13] Eshghizadeh, M., Talebi, A., Dastorani, M.T., and Azimzadeh, H.R. (2015). Effect of Natural Land Covers on Runoff and Soil Loss at the Hill-Slope Scale. Global Journal of Environmental Science Management, 2(2):125-134.
[14] Farayi, D. (2011). Spatial Soil Erosion Hazard Assessment and Modeling in Mbire District, Zimbabwe. Implications for Catchment Management, Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis Submitted to the University of Zimbabwe, July, 2011.
[15] Francis, O.A. (2012). The Intensity of Wet Years in the Sudano- Shelian Region of Nigeria. Continental Journal of Environmental Science, 6(2):44-53.
[16] Gyssel, G.,Poesen, J.,Bochet,E., and Li, Y. (2005). Impact of Plant Roots on the resistance of Soils to Erosion by water: A Review, Physical Geography, 2:189-217.
[17] Hartemink, A.E. (2002). Soil Science in Tropical and Temperate Regions: Some Difference and Similarities. Advances in Agronomy, 77: 269-292.
[18] Istanovics, V. (2009). Eutrophication of lakes and Reservoirs. Encyclopaedia of Inland Waters, 1:157-165.
[19] Igbokwe, J.I., Akinyede, J.O., Dang, B., Ono, M.N., Nnodu, V.C., and Anike, L.O. (2008). Mapping and Monitoring of Impact of Gully Erosion in South-Eastern Nigeria, Paper Presented at Department of Surveying and Geomatics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Akwa Anambra State.
[20] Jing, K., Wang, W.Z., and Zheng, F.L.(2005). Soil Erosion and Environment in China. Science Press, p.359.
[21] Kateb, H., Zhang, H., Zhang, P., and Mosandi, R. (2013). Soil Erosion and Surface Runoff on Different Vegetation Covers and Slope Gradients. Catena, 105:1-10.
[22] Kalu, A.C. (2001). Soil Erosion and Landslides: 21st Century Issues and Challenges to Rural Development in Nigeria. Unpublished MURP Seminar Paper: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Abia State University, Uturu Abia State, Nigeria.
[23] Lant, C.L., Kraft, S.E., Beaulieu, J., Bennett, D., Loftus, T., and Nicklow, J. (2005.) Using G.I.S –Based Ecological Economic Modeling to Evaluate Policies Affecting Agricultural Watersheds. Ecological Economics, 55(4):467-84.
[24] Madi, H., Mouzai, L., and Bouhadef, M. (2013). Plant covers effect on overland flow and on soil erosion under simulated rainfall intensity. World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, 7(8).
[25] Martinez, R.A., Duran, Z.V.H., and Francia, F.R. (2006). Soil Erosion and Runoff Response to Plant Cover Strips on Semi-Arid Slopes. Land Degradation Development, 17:1-11.
[26] Morelli, J. (2010). Economic Sustainability and the Preservation of Environmental Management. Journal of Environmental Management, 14(8):771-778.
[27] Pathak, P., Wani, S.P. and Sudi, R. (2005) International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics: Global Theme on Agroecosystems. Gully Control in SAT Watersheds, p. 28
[28] Pimentel, D., Petrotra, T., Riley, M., Jacquet, J., Honigman, J., and Valero, E. (2006). Conservation of Biological Diversity in Agricultural, Forestry and Marine System. In: Focus on Ecology Research; Burk, A.R., Ed Nova Science Publishers New York, USA. pp.151-173.
[29] Pimentel, D. (2006). A Food and Environmental Threat. Environmental Development and Sustainability, 8:119-137.
[30] Pugdefabregas, J.(2004). The role of Vegetation Pattern in Structuring Runoff and Sediment Fluxes in Dryland. Earth Surface Processes and Landform, 30:133-147.
[31] Rey, F. (2003). Influence of Vegetation Distribution on Sediment Yield in Forested Marly Gullies. Catena, 50:549-562
[32] Rehman, O., Rashid, M., Kausar, R., Alvis, S., and Hussain, R.(2015). Slope Gradient and Vegetation Cover Effect on the Runoff and Sediment Yield in Hillslope Agriculture. Turkish Journal of Agriculture, 3(6): 478-483.
[33] Sharma, P.O. (2009).The Role of Terrestrial Vegetation in the Global Carbon Cycle. Journal of Ecology and Environment, 140: 342-345.
[34] Stanche, S., and Godone, D. (2011). Soil Erosion Studies. Intech Publishers ISBN 978-953-307-710-9:35-41.
[35] Troeh, F.R., Hobbs, A.H., and Donahue, R.L.(2004). Soil and Water Conservation; for Productivity and Environmental Protection. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J USA.
[36] Vanoost, K., Govers, G., and Desmet, P. (2008). Evaluating the Effect of Changes in Landscape Structure on Soil Erosion by Water and Tillage. Landscape Ecology, 15(6):577-589.
[37] Woreka, B.B. (2004). Evaluation of Soil Loss Erosion in the Highlands of Ethiopia Using Soil Loss Models, Rainfall Stimulation and Field Trials. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Science, University of Petoria.
[38] World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford University Press.
[39] Zhao, X., Chen, X., Huang, J., Wu, P., Helmers, M.J. (2013). Effects of Vegetation Cover of Natural Grassland on Runoff and Sediment Yield in Loess Hilly Region. Journal Science, Food and Agriculture, 94: 497-503.
[40] Zhou, Z.C., and Shangguan, Z.P. (2007). The Effects of Drygrass Roots and Shoots on Loess Erosion under Simulated Rainfall. Catena, 70: 350-355.
[41] Zuazo, V.D.H., and Plaguezuele, C.R.R. (2008). Soil Erosion and Runoff Prevention by Plant Covers: A Review Agronomy Sustainable Development, 28:65-86.
[42] Zuazo, V.D.H., Tajero, I.G., Martinez, J.R.F., and Fernandez, J.L.M. (2011). Soil Erosion: Causes, Processes and Effects. In: Fournier, A.J. (Ed). Soil Erosion. Nova Science Publishers Inc, New York.