• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2456-8015

International Journal Of Medical, Pharmacy And Drug Research(IJMPD)

Cervical Cancer Care Seeking Behaviour Among Community Women, Jos-North, Plateau State

Eunice Samuel Ari , Regidor III Poblete Dioso , John Obafemi Sotunsa

International Journal of Medical, Pharmacy and Drug Research(IJMPD), Vol-7,Issue-1, January - February 2023, Pages 7-18 , 10.22161/ijmpd.7.1.2

Download | Downloads : 6 | Total View : 134

Article Info: Received: 05 Jan 2023; Received in revised form: 25 Jan 2023; Accepted: 10 Feb 2023; Available online: 28 Feb 2023


Most people are infected with HPV shortly after the onset of sexual activity. The screening rate has not reached the WHO's target. This study seeks to assess community women's care-seeking behavior toward cervical cancer screening participation. A cross-sectional design was employed, community women who met the criteria for inclusion were given a self-developed questionnaire conveniently. Results show that the majority (51.9%) of women were between the ages of 21-29, majority (83.0%) had only one sexual partner, majority (75.0%) were extremely poor with very low yearly income of less than 284,700.00 Naira, and 19.3% experienced gynecological symptoms. Majority (78.5%) have the fear of being diagnosed with cancer, and 69.6% fear exposing their genital area. Women agreed that HPV is the causative organism of cervical cancer and husband do not allow someone to touch their wives’ private parts. They moderately agreed that a woman must obtain consent from her husband before going for screening, that exposing their private part is culturally inappropriate. Only 14.1% of those surveyed had ever undergone a cervical cancer screening. Among the respondents who had screened, 57.9% had bad experience. There is a significant difference between age group and screening where majority who had screened were older women within the age group 30-65 years (X2=8.402; P-value=0.005) and having gynecological symptoms has positive influence on screening participation (X2=7.422; P-value=0.012). The majority (92.6%) believed that husband involvement and the caregiver's friendly attitude are among other facilitating conditions to screening. In conclusion, there was low screening participation among community women. Women's knowledge of cervical cancer and screening did not translate into participating in screening. Low socioeconomic status has a significant impact on screening, screening rates were higher among older women than younger ones, and experiencing gynecological symptoms has a positive impact on screening. It was therefore recommended that interventions aimed at enhancing care seeking behavior based on women's needs be implemented.

Cancer prevention, Care seeking Behaviour, Gynecological screening

[1] Al-Amoudi, S., Cañas, J., Hohl, S. D., Distelhorst, S. R., & Thompson, B. (2015). Breaking the Silence: Breast Cancer Knowledge and Beliefs Among Somali Muslim Women in Seattle, Washington. Health Care for Women International, 36(5), 608–616. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2013.857323
[2] Alexis, O., & Worsley, A. (2018). An integrative review exploring black men of African and Caribbean backgrounds, their fears of prostate cancer and their attitudes towards screening. Health Education Research. https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyy001
[3] Aminisani, N. et al. (2016) ‘Determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake in kurdish women living in western iran, 2014’, Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 17(8), pp. 3763–3767. doi: 10.14456/apjcp.2016.167/APJCP.2016.17.8.3763.
[4] Arbyn, M., Weiderpass, E., Bruni, L., Sanjosé, S. De, Saraiya, M., Ferlay, J., Bray, F., & Foundation, M. G. (2020). Articles Estimates of incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in 2018 : a worldwide analysis. 191–203. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30482-6
[5] Black, E., Hyslop, F. and Richmond, R. (2019) ‘Barriers and facilitators to uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in Uganda: A systematic review’, BMC Women’s Health. BioMed Central Ltd., 19(1), pp. 1–12. doi: 10.1186/S12905-019-0809-Z/TABLES/3.
[6] Des Marais, A. C., Brewer, N. T., Knight, S., & Smith, J. S. (2022). Patient perspectives on cervical cancer screening interventions among underscreened women. PLOS ONE, 17(12), e0277791. https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0277791
[7] Donatus, L., Nina, F. K., Sama, D. J., Nkfusai, C. N., Bede, F., Shirinde, J., & Cumber, S. N. (2019). Assessing the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women aged 25-65 years in Kumbo West Health District, Cameroon. Pan African Medical Journal, 8688, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2019.33.106.16975
[8] Egbodo, C. O. et al. (2018) ‘Review of Cervical Screening in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital’, 6(4), pp. 59–63. doi: 10.5923/j.rog.20180604.01.
[9] Eka, P. O. (2016) ‘Perception of Cervical Cancer and Cervical Screening, And Uptake of Pap Smear Among Female Employees of the Jos University Teaching Hospital and Its Environs’, IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science, 05(05), pp. 01–05. doi: 10.9790/1959-0505030105.
[10] Finocchario-kessler, S., Wexler, C., Maloba, M., Mabachi, N., Ndikum-moffor, F., & Bukusi, E. (2016). Cervical cancer prevention and treatment research in Africa : a systematic review from a public health perspective. BMC Women’s Health. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-016-0306-6
[11] Frerichs, L., Rhode, J., Bell, R., Hunt, C., Lowery, J., Brooks, M., Beasley, C., & Reuland, D. (2018). Perspectives of American Indians in eastern North Carolina on socio-cultural factors that influence colorectal cancer screening decisions. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2018.0055
[12] Gitonga, E., Iseme, R., Mutisya, R., Kodhiambo, M., & Nairobi, K. ; (2022). Cervical cancer knowledge, awareness and related health behaviours amongst women of reproductive age in Kiambu County, Kenya: a cross-sectional study. https://doi.org/10.1080/21642850.2022.2136184
[13] Hahm, M.-I. et al. (2017) ‘Do fears of getting cancer and family history of cancer influence participation in opportunistic screening or organized screening for gastric cancer?’, Journal of Clinical Oncology. doi: 10.1200/jco.2017.35.15_suppl.e13045.
[14] Ifemelumma, C. C., Anikwe, C. C., Okorochukwu, B. C., Onu, F. A., Obuna, J. A., Ejikeme, B. N., & Ezeonu, O. P. (2019). Cervical Cancer Screening : Assessment of Perception and Utilization of Services among Health Workers in Low Resource Setting. 2019.
[15] Joffe, M., Ayeni, O., Norris, S. A., Mccormack, A., Ruff, P., Das, I., Neugut, A. I., Jacobson, J. S., Cubasch, H., Bayrami, R., Taghipour, A., Ebrahimipour, H., Chen, N. N., Moran, M. B., Frank, L. B., Ball-, S. J., Murphy, S. T., Chen, N. N., Moran, M. B., … Berg, A. C. (2018). Health behavioural theories and their application to women ’ s participation in mammography screening : a narrative review. Journal of Health Communication, 12(4), 661–669. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2018.1500661
[16] Kue, J., Szalacha, L. A., Happ, M. B., & Menon, U. (2020). Perceptions of Cervical Cancer and Screening Behavior among Cambodian and Lao Women in the United States: An Exploratory, Mixed-Methods Study. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 31(2), 889–908. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2020.0067
[17] Lor, M., Backonja, U., & Lauver, D. R. (2017). CE How Could Nurse Researchers Apply Theory to Generate. 580–589. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12316
[18] Lor, M., Khang, P. Y., Xiong, P., Moua, K. F., & Lauver, D. (2013). Understanding Hmong women’s beliefs, feelings, norms, and external conditions about breast and cervical cancer screening. Public Health Nursing, 30(5), 420–428. https://doi.org/10.1111/PHN.12043
[19] Lunsford, N. B., Ragan, K., Smith, J. L., Saraiya, M., & Aketch, M. (2017). Environmental and Psychosocial Barriers to and Benefits of Cervical Cancer Screening in Kenya. The Oncologist, 22(2), 173–181. https://doi.org/10.1634/THEONCOLOGIST.2016-0213
[20] MacLaughlin, K. L. et al. (2019) ‘Trends Over Time in Pap and Pap-HPV Cotesting for Cervical Cancer Screening’, Journal of Women’s Health. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 28(2), p. 244. doi: 10.1089/JWH.2018.7380.
[21] Momberg, M., Botha, M. H., Van Der Merwe, F. H., & Moodley, J. (2017). Women’s experiences with cervical cancer screening in a colposcopy referral clinic in Cape Town, South Africa: A qualitative analysis. BMJ Open, 7(2), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013914
[22] Mungai1, W., Kikuvi1, G. & Wanzala, P. C. M. (20116). Factors Associated with Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening among Women Aged 18-49 Years in Njiru Sub-County, Nairobi Kenya. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare , 6(6), 87–95.
[23] Musa, J. et al. (2016) ‘Cervical cancer survival in a resource-limited setting-North Central Nigeria’, Infectious Agents and Cancer. Infectious Agents and Cancer, 11(1), pp. 1–7. doi: 10.1186/s13027-016-0062-0.
[24] Musa, J., Achenbach, C. J., et al. (2019) ‘HIV status, age at cervical Cancer screening and cervical cytology outcomes in an opportunistic screening setting in Nigeria: a 10-year Cross sectional data analysis’. Infectious Agents and Cancer, 4, pp. 1–12.
[25] Ndejjo, R. et al. (2017) ‘Knowledge, facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in Uganda: A qualitative study’, BMJ Open. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016282.
[26] Nwobodo, H. and Ba-Break, M. (2016) ‘Analysis of the determinants of low cervical cancer screening uptake among Nigerian women’, Journal of Public Health in Africa, 6(2), pp. 12–19. doi: 10.4081/jphia.2015.484.
[27] Nyambe, A., Kampen, J. K., Baboo, S. K., & Hal, G. Van. (2018). The impact of the social environment on Zambian cervical cancer prevention practices. 1–10.
[28] Oketch, S. Y., Kwena, Z., Choi, Y., Adewumi, K., Moghadassi, M., Bukusi, E. A., & Huchko, M. J. (2019). Perspectives of women participating in a cervical cancer screening campaign with community-based HPV self-sampling in rural western Kenya : a qualitative study. 1–10.
[29] Ubah, C., Nwaneri, A. C., Anarado, A. N., Iheanacho, P. N., & Odikpo, L. C. (2022). Perceived Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake among Women of an Urban Community in South-Eastern Nigeria. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention : APJCP, 23(6), 1959. https://doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2022.23.6.1959
[30] US Preventive Services Task Force. (2018). Screening for Cervical Cancer. 52242(7), 674–686. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.10897
[31] Utoo, B., Utoo, P., Ngwan, S., Anzaku, S., & Daniel, M. (2016). Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: Prevalence, risk factors, and utilization of screening services among an urban population in Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 33(3), 279. https://doi.org/10.4103/0189-5117.199810
[32] Vhuromu, E. N., T. Goon, D., Maputle, M. S., Lebese, R. T., & Okafor, B. U. (2018). Utilization of Cervical Cancer Screening Services among Women in Vhembe District, South Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study. The Open Public Health Journal, 11(1), 451–463. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874944501811010451
[33] Won, H. et al. (2019) ‘Heliyon Effects of cervical cancer prevention education in middle-school girls in Korea: A mixed-method study’, Heliyon. Elsevier Ltd, 5(July 2018), p. e01826. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon. 2019.e01826.
[34] Yang, H., Li, S. P., Chen, Q., & Morgan, C. (2019). Barriers to cervical cancer screening among rural women in eastern China: A qualitative study. BMJ Open, 9(3), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026413