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International Journal Of Medical, Pharmacy And Drug Research(IJMPD)

Assessment of Antibacterial, Phytochemical Properties and GCMS Profiling of Crude PolyalthiaLongifolia Extract

Oludaretemitope Osuntokun , Olanbiwonnu A. A , Orimolade G. F

International Journal of Medical, Pharmacy and Drug Research(IJMPD), Vol-1,Issue-1, May - June 2017, Pages 12-27 ,

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The purpose of this present study is to determine the antibacterial potency of essential oil of Polyalthialongifolia, to determine the presence of phytochemicals and structural determination ofbioactive component from the leaf portion using GCMS. In this present study, the antibacterial activity from the essential oils of Polyalthialongifolia leaf and stem bark against seven bacteria (gram-positive and gram-negative) which are Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillussubtilis, Salmonellatyphi, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa known to be pathogenic to human causing high mortality among human. This study involved the extraction of essential oils from air-dried leaf and stem bark of Polyalthialongifolia using soxhlet method with n- hexane as the extracting solvent. Antibacterial activity was carried out using agar well diffusion method. Both plants part essential oil showed high antibacterial property. The sensitivity test revealed that Staphylococcus aureushas the highest zone of inhibition (18.0mm) to Polyalthialongifolia stem bark essential oil at 100mg/ml while the least zone of inhibition (3.0mm)was recorded for Escherichia coli at 100mg/ml to the essential oil of Polyalthialongifolialeaf.However, phytochemical analysis of the plants revealed the presence of bioactive components such as cardiac glycoside, steroid, anthraquinone, flavonoid, phenol, alkaloid and reducing sugars. The presence of these components enhances the effectiveness of plants essential oil in treating various diseases and helps to act as an effective antimicrobial agent. The essential oil of Polyalthialongifolialeaf was further analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS), the main constituents were 6-octadecenoic acid (30.75%), Diisooctyl phthalate (3.87%) 1,1,6-trimethyl-3-methylene (17%). The various phytochemical and GC-MS components found in this plant were responsible by and large for the antibacterial activitiesexhibited the essential oil of Polyalthialongifolia leaf and stem bark in this study.

Polyalthialongifolia,Essential oils, Antibacterial and Phytochemical activity.

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