• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2582-9823

International Journal Of Language, Literature And Culture(IJLLC)

Marginality in the Brontë sisters’ novels

Etienne Pathé Tine , Maurice Gning

International Journal of Language, Literature and Culture (IJLLC), Vol-3,Issue-6, November - December 2023, Pages 25-34, 10.22161/ijllc.3.6.4

Download | Downloads : 1 | Total View : 222

Article Info: Received: 09 Oct 2023, Received in revised form: 10 Nov 2023, Accepted: 20 Nov 2023, Available online: 28 Nov 2023


The Brontë sisters, Charlotte, Emily, and Anne have left their mark on the literary landscape of Victorian England. Beyond the fact that they belong to the same family and are all three remarkable writers in the same period, a unique fact in literary history, these sisters fully express their genius through the sensitive and aesthetic dimension of the various themes they address in their novels. One of the major themes common to their novels is the question of marginality in a highly stratified society of 19th-century Britain. Using Marxist, new historicist, feminist, and psychoanalytical reading grids, we aim to examine this theme of marginality precisely in Jane Eyre, The Professor and Shirley by Charlotte and Wuthering Heights by Emily. This work thus reveals the multiple faces and implications of marginality in these novels in a context of economic, political and social revolution.

marginality, Brontë sisters, Victorian woman, prejudices, exile, wandering.

[1] Armstrong, N. “Emily Brontë In and Out of Her Time.” Genre, vol. 15, 1982, 89-108¬.
[2] Bolzman, C. “Exil et errance”. Pensée plurielle, 1 (n° 35), 2014, 43-52.
[3] Boone, J. A. “Wuthering Heights: Uneasy Wedlock and Unquiet Slumbers in Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights” (. H. Bloom (Ed.), New Delhi: Viva Books Private Limited, 2010, 127-46.
[4] Bos, J. « Les types de marginalisation dans leur relation constitutive au discours », L'Homme & la Société, vol. 167-168-169, no. 1-2-3, 2008, 177-201.
[5] Brontë, A. Agnes Grey. London: Wordsworth Classics, 1998.
— —. The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. London: Wordsworth Classics, 2001.
[6] Brontë, C. Jane Eyre. London: Wordsworth Classics, 1999.
— — —. Shirley. London: Wordsworth Classics, 1993.
— — —. The Professor. Edinburgh: Thortorn Edition, 1907.
— — —. Villette. London: Wordsworth Classics, 1993.
[7] Brontë, E. Wuthering Heights. London: Wordsworth Editions, 1992.
[8] Huxley, A. Brave New World, Chatto & Windus, London, 1932.
[9] Caywood, H. “Nelly, I am Heathcliff!” The Intersection of Class, Race, and Narration in Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights. A thesis presented for the B.A. degree with Honors in The Department of English University of Michigan, Winter 2017.
[10] Clark, G. “The British Industrial Revolution, 1760-1860”. World Economic History: ECN 110B, Spring 2005.
[11] Eccles, C. O’. The Rejuvenation of Miss Semaphore: A Farcical Novel. 1897. London: British Library, 2011.
[12] Eron, S. "Issues of Social Marginalisation and Physical Isolation and their Moral Significances in Brontë's Jane Eyre." https://victorianweb.org /authors/bronte/cbronte / eron21.html Web. Accessed 2 February 2022.
[13] Hadjiafxendi, et.al. “What Is a Woman to Do? A Reader on Women”. Work and Art, c. PETER LANG, Oxford, 2011, 1830–1890.
[14] Hughes, K. “Discovering Literature: Romantics & Victorians.” . Accessed 17 February 2022.
[15] Hugo, V. « L'homme qui rit ». https://www.ebooksgratuits.com/blackmask/hugo homme_ qui_ rit. pdf. Accessed 9 July 2022.
[16] Laberge, D. & Roy, S. Marginalité et exclusion sociales : des lieux et des formes. https://doi.org/10.7202/1002205ar. Accessed 10 October 2023.
[17] Longmuir, A. “Emigrant Spinsters and the Construction of Englishness in Charlotte Brontë's Villette.” Nineteenth-Century Gender Studies Issue 4.3, 2008.
[18] Maine, A. “Pet Lamb and Clothed Hyena: Law as an Oppressive Force in Jane Eyre”. Student Journal of Professional Practice and Academic Research, Volume 1 Issue 1, 2006, 9-11.
[19] M’Carthy, J. “Novels with a Purpose”. Westminster Review, 26(1), 1864.
[20] Mérias, C. Images de l’enfance dans Jane Eyre. Clermont-Ferrand: PU Blaise Pascal, 2009.
[21] Meyer, S. “‘Indian Ink’: Colonialism and the Figurative Strategy of Jane Eyre.” Bloom’s Modern Critical Interpretations: Jane Eyre - Charlotte Bronte, Updated Edition, 2007, 43–74.
[22] Peters, J. G. “Inside and Outside: ‘Jane Eyre’ and Marginalisation through Labelling.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 28, no. 1, 1996, 57–75.
[23] Reef, C. The Brontë sisters: the brief lives of Charlotte, Emily, and Anne. Clarion Books, New York, 2012.
[24] River, R. ‘Reconsidering Bertha: Marginalised Women and Unheard Voices in Jane Eyre, the Odyssey, and the Wide Sargasso Sea’. http://reileypengxi.wordpress.com 7 June 2023.
[25] Rioux, L. "Les dimensions spatiale et culturelle de la marginalité : une approche psychosociologique".https://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes /divers 4/ 01 0017379. Accessed 17 october 2023.
[26] Shuttleworth, S. “Jane Eyre: Lurid Hieroglyphics” in Charlotte Bronte and Victorian Psychology, CUP, 2009, 7-42.
[27] Takahashi, M. “Feminism and Identity in Victorian novels of Brontës, the Interchangeability of the Binaries: Center and Margin, Reality and Appearance, Original and Copy”. Doctor of Philosophy to the faculty of the Department of English of St. John’s College of Liberal Arts & Sciences at St. John University, New York, 2023.
[28] Wright, W. The Brontës in Ireland or Facts Stranger than Fiction. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1893.
[29] Zwick M., M. & Grimard, C. ‘De la marginalité à la vulnérabilité : quels liens entre concepts, réalités et intervention sociale?’ Nouvelles pratiques sociales, 27(2), 2015, pp 45–59.