• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2456-8635

International Journal Of Horticulture, Agriculture And Food Science(IJHAF)

Optimization and Modeling of Energy Bars Based Formulations by Simplex Lattice Mixture Design

Elochukwu chinwe. U. , Nwosu Justina N. , Owuamanam C. I. , Osuji C. I.

International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food science(IJHAF), Vol-3,Issue-5, September - October 2019, Pages 299-311,

Download | Downloads : 7 | Total View : 422


Simplex lattice mixture design was utilized to optimize high caloric and acceptable energy bars. Fourteen formulations of energy bars were produced from flour blends of high quality cassava flour (0–100%), toasted bambara groundnut (0–100%) and roasted cashew kernel(0–100%).The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of varying the proportions of the independent variables on these dependent variables (proteins, fats, carbohydrate) and general acceptability qualities of the energy bars. Proteins, Fats and Carbohydrates were indicators of the calorie values of these energy bars. Mixture response surface methodology was used to model the proteins, fats, carbohydrates and general acceptability with single, binary and ternary combinations of high quality cassava flour, toasted bambara groundnut and roasted cashew kernel flours. The effect of variation in levels of cassava, bambara groundnut and cashew kernel flours on the fats, proteins, carbohydrates and general acceptability of the formulated energy bars were adequately predicted with regression equation. The statistical adequacy of the generated polynomial equations of the responses were checked using the following indices: F-value at p0.05, coefficient of determination R2, Adj. R2, lack of fit, and coefficient of variation (CV). Optimization suggested energy bars containing 61.40 % high quality cassava flour, 0.00 % bambara groundnut flour and 38.6 % cashew kernel flour as the best proportion of these components with a desirability of 0.775. Numerical optimization indicated that better sensory and high calorific qualities are directly related with the proportion of cassava flour, bambara groundnut flour and cashew kernel flour respectively.The optimum blends as validated showed a close relationship between the predicted and experimental values.

Optimization, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, cassava, bambara groundnut, cashew kernel.

[1] Aigster, A., Duncan, S.E., Conforti, F.D. & Barbeau, W.E., (2011). Physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of resistant starch-supplemented granola bars and cereals. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 44(10), 2159-2165
[2] Al-Hooti, S.N., Sidhu, J.S., Al-Saqer, J.M. & Al-Othman, A. 2002. Chemical composition and quality of date syrup as affected by pectinase/cellulase enzyme treatment . Food Chemistry, 79 (2), 215-220. Anuar, N., Adnan, A.F., Saat,N., Aziz, N. & Taha, R.M. (2013). Optimization of Extraction Parameters by Using Response Surface Methodology, Purification, and Identification of Anthocyanin Pigments in Melastoma malabathricum Fruit. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, The Scientific World Journal Volume, Article ID 810547, 10 pages, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/810547.
[3] AOAC (2006). Official Methods of Analysis. Washington: Association of Analytical Chemists.
[4] BIS IS: 6273 (1971). Part I and Part II Guide for sensory evaluation of foods. Indian Standard Institution, Manak Bhawan, New Delhi.
[5] Chakraborty SK, Kumbhar BK, Chakraborty S, Yadav P. Influence of processing parameters on textural characteristics and overall acceptability of millet enriched biscuits using response surface methodology. J Food Sci Technol. 2011;48(2):167–174. doi: 10.1007/s13197-010-0164-4.
[6] Cherie, Z., Ziegler, G.R., Gemede, H.F. & Woldegiorgis, A.Z. (2018). Optimization and modeling of teff-maize-rice based formulation by simplex lattice mixture design for the preparation of brighter and acceptable injera, Cogent Food & Agriculture, 4:1, DOI:10.1080/23311932.2018.1443381
[7] Cox, D. R. (1971). A note on polynomial response functions for mixtures. Biometrika, 58(1), 155–159.
[8] El-Sharkawy, M.A. (2003). Cassava Biology and Physiology. Plant Mol Biol 53(1), 621-641.
[9] Giovanni, M. (1983). Response surface methodology and product optimisation. Food Technol. 37:41–45.
[10] Gupta, K., Mansi Verma, P. J. & Monika, J. (2014). Process Optimization for Producing Cowpea Added Instant Kheer Mix Using Response Surface Methodology. J. Nutr. health Food Eng. 1(5), 198‒206.
[11] Honorato T.L, Rabelo, M.C., Goncalve, L.R.B., Pinto G.A.S. & Rodrigue, S. (2007). Fermentation of cashew apple juice to produce high added value products. World Journal of Microbial Biotechnology. 23 (10), 1409 – 1415.
[12] Mostafazadeha AKM, Sarshara M, Javadiana SH, et al. (2011). Separation of fructose and glucose from date syrup using resin chromatographic method: Experimental data and mathematical modeling . J of Separation and Purification Technology, 79(1):72–78.
[13] Mridula, D., Singh, K.K. & Barnwal, P. (2013). Development of omega-3 rich energy bar with flaxseed. J. Food Sci. Technol, 50(5):950-957.
[14] Myers, R.H., Montgomery, D.C. & Anderson-Cook, C.M. (2009) Response surface methodology: process and product optimization using designed experiments, 3rd edn. Wiley, Hoboken.
[15] Ohler, J.G. (1979). Cashew. Department of Agricultural Research, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam.
[16] Okafor, G.I. & Ugwu, F.C. (2014). Production and evaluation of cold extruded and baked ready-to-eat snacks from blends of breadfruit (Treculia africana), cashewnut (Anacardium occidentale) and coconut (Cocos nucifera). Food Science and Quality Management, 23: 65-77.
[17] Olapade, A.A. & Adetuyi, D.O. (2007). Comparison of different methods of producing bambara (Voandzeia subterranean L. Thou) flours for preparation of moin-moin. Niger. Food J. 25 (2), pp. 150-157.
[18] Onwuka, G. I. (2005). Food Analysis and Instrumentation, Theory and Practice. Lagos : Naphthali prints.
[19] Ooamah, B.D. (2001). Flaxseed as a functional food source. J Sci. Food Agric., 81(9):889-94.
[20] Oti, E. & Ukpabi, U. J. (2006). Cassava for Bread Making in Nigeria. Proceedings of the Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology South –Eastern Chapter Workshop on the use of cassava-wheat composite flour and non –bromated additives for bread making held at National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Umuahia,Abia state. Pub. Naphtali Prints, Nigeria.
[21] Seth, D., & Rajamanickam, G. (2012). Development of extruded snacks using soy, sorghum, millet and rice blend–A response surface methodology approach. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 47(7), 1526–1531.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.03001.x
[22] Singh, S., Raina, C.S., Bawa, A.S. & Saxena, D.C. (2004). Sweet potato based pasta product: optimization of ingredient levels using RSM. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech., 39:191–200.
[23] Tsegai, D. & Kormawa, P.C. (2002). Determinants of Urban Household Demand for Cassava Products in Kaduna, Northern Nigeria. In: Conference of International Research for Development, Witzenhause, 9-10.