• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2456-8635

International Journal Of Horticulture, Agriculture And Food Science(IJHAF)

Examining the spatial distribution pattern and optimum sample size for monitoring of the white mango scale insect, Aulacaspis tubercularis (Newstead) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on certain mango cultivars

Moustafa M S Bakry , Nagdy F Abdel-Baky


International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food science(IJHAF), Vol-4,Issue-3, May - June 2020, Pages 91-107, 10.22161/ijhaf.4.3.4

Download | Downloads : 12 | Total View : 468

Share

The white mango scale insect, Aulacaspis tubercularis (Newstead) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) is one of the most destructive pests of mango trees in Egypt. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the spatial distribution pattern and minimum sample size for monitoring populations of A. tubercularis on six different cultivars of mango through the two successive years of 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 at Esna district, Luxor Governorate, Egypt. Data on the indices of distribution and Taylor’s and Iwao’s regression analyses indicate significant aggregation behaviour during each year in all the tested cultivars of mango trees, that may be caused by environmental heterogeneity. The regression models of Taylor’s power law (b) and Iwao’s patchiness (β) were both significantly >1, indicating that A. tubercularis had an aggregation distribution with a negative binomial distribution during each year in all the tested mango cultivars. The Iwao regression coefficients were used to determine the optimum sample size required to estimate populations at three fixed precision levels. The optimum size decreased with increased density in all levels of precision (5, 10 and 15%) in all tested mango cultivars. These can be deployed to develop a sampling plan to estimate the population density accurately. Results suggesting that the optimum sample size was flexible and the precision levels of 5 and 10% were suitable for ecological or insect behavioral studies of A. tubercularis where a higher level of precision is required, whereas, for pest management programs, a 15% level would be acceptable. Furthermore, the distribution, different mango cultivars, and sampling protocol presented here could be used as a tool for future research on pest management methods for this pest.

Aulacaspis tubercularis, population density, spatial distribution, sample size, mango cultivars.

[1] Abo-Shanab, A.S.H. (2012): Suppression of white mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on mango trees in El-Beheira Governorate, Egypt. Acad. J. Biolog. Sci., 5: 43-50 pp.
[2] Arbab, A and M.R. McNeill (2014): Spatial distribution and sequential sampling plans for adult, Sitona humeralis Stephens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in alfalfa. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 17: 515–519 pp.
[3] Arbab, A. (2014): Spatial distribution and minimum sample size for Overwintering Larvae of the Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) in paddy fields. Neotrop Entomol 43: 415–420 pp.
[4] Arnaldo, P.S. and L.M. Torres (2005): Spatial distribution and sampling of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidea) populations of Pinus pinaster Ait. in Montesinho, N. Portugal. Forest and Ecology Management 210(1): 1-7 pp.
[5] Bakr, R.F.A.; R.M. Badawy; S.F.M. Mousa; L.S. Hamooda and S.A. Atteia (2009): Ecological and taxonomic studies on the scale insects that infest mango trees at governorate Egypt. Acad. J. biolog. Sci., 2 (2): 69- 89 pp.
[6] Bakry, M.M.S. (2009): Studies on some scale insects and mealybugs infesting mango trees in Qena Governorate. M.Sc. Thesis, Fac. Agric. Minia, Univ., 204 pp.
[7] Bakry, M.M.S. (2018): Abundance, generation determination and spatial distribution pattern of the sunt wax scale insect, Waxiella mimosae (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) infesting sunt trees in Luxor Governorate, Egypt. Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research 4(3): 523-538.
[8] Bakry, M.M.S. (2020): Spatial distribution of the plum scale insect, Parlatoria oleae (Colvee) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) infesting mango trees in Egypt. International journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food science, 4(2):14-20 pp.
[9] Bakry, M.M.S. and A. Arbab (2020 a): Monitoring of the scale insect, Icerya seychellarum (Westwood) infesting guava. Indian Journal of Entomology, 82 (1): 1-12 pp.
[10] Bakry, M.M.S. and S.Y.E. Shakal (2020 b): Population size and spatial distribution pattern of Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on some wheat cultivars and lines. Acta Entomology and Zoology, 1(2): 1-9 pp.
[11] Bala, K. and S. Kumar (2018): Survey on the Incidence and Population Build-up of Chauliops fallax Sweet and Schaeffer (Hemiptera: Malcidae) on different legume crops under low and mid hills of himachal pradesh. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci., 7(8): 3824-3833 pp.
[12] Beltra, A.; F. Garcia–Mari and A. Soto (2013): Seasonal Phenology, Spatial Distribution, and Sampling Plan for the Invasive Mealybug, Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Journal of Economic Entomology, 106(3): 1486-1494 pp.
[13] Binns, M.R.; J.P. Nyrop and W. Van Der Werf (2000): Sampling and Monitoring in Crop Protection: the Theoretical Basis for Developing Practical Decision Guides. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, U.K. 284 pp.
[14] Bisseleua, D.H.B.; Yede and S. Vidal (2011): Dispersion models and sampling of cacaomirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis (Haglung) (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Theobroma cacao L. in southern Cameroon. Environ. Entomol. 40, 111–119 pp.
[15] Blackith, R.E. (1961): The water reserves of hatchling locusts. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology, 3(2): 99-107 pp.
[16] Cassie, R.M. (1962): Frequency distribution models in the ecology of plankton and other organisms. Journal of Animal Ecology, 31(1): 65-92.
[17] Chellappan, M.; L. Lawrence; P. Indhu; T. Cherian; S. Anitha and T. Jimcymaria (2013): Host range and distribution pattern of papaya mealy bug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) on selected Euphorbiaceae hosts in Kerala Journal of Tropical Agriculture 51 (1-2) : 51-59 pp.
[18] Cho, K.; J.H. Lee; J.J. Park; J.K. Kim and K.B. Uhm (2001): Analysis of spatial pattern of greenhouse cucumbers using dispersion index and spatial autocorrelation. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 36(1): 25-32 pp.
[19] Costa, M.G.; J.C. Barbosa; P.T. Yamamoto and R.M. Leal (2010): Spatial distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in citrus orchards. Scientia Agricola, 67: 546-554 pp.
[20] David, F.N. and P.G. Moor (1954): Notes on contagious distribution in plant populations, Ann. Bot, 18: 47–53 pp.
[21] Debouzie, D. and J. Thioulouse (1986): Statistics to find spatial and temporal structures in populations. In: Mangel M (ed) Pest control: operations and systemanalysis in fruit flymanagement, vol G11, NATO ASI Series. Springer, Berlin, 263–282 pp.
[22] Downing, J.A. (1986): Spatial heterogeneity: Evolve behaviour or mathematical artifact? Nature, 323: 255-257 pp.
[23] Duncan, D.B. (1955): Multiple range and multiple F. test. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.
[24] El-Metwally, M.M.; S.F.M. Moussa and N.M. Ghanim (2011): Studies on the population fluctuations and distribution of the white mango scale insect, Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead within the canopy of the mango trees in eastern of Delta region at the north of Egypt. Egypt. Acad. J. biolog. Sci., 4 (1): 123- 130 pp.
[25] Faleiro, J.R.; J.A. Kummar and P.A. Ranjekar (2002): Spatial distribution of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coconut plantations. Crop Protection, 21(2): 171–176.
[26] Feng, M.G. and R.M. Nowierski (1992): Spatial distribution and sampling plans for four species of cereal aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) infesting spring wheat in southwestern Idaho. J. of Econ. Entomol., 85: 830-837 pp.
[27] Feng, M.G.; R.M. Nowierski; Z. Zeng and A.L. Scharen (1993): Estimation of population density of the Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) from the proportion of grain tillers with the different tally threshold of aphids. J. of Econ. Entomol., 86: 427-435 pp.
[28] Green, R.H. (1966): Measurement of non-randomness in spatial distribution. Res. Population Ecol. 8:1–17 pp.
[29] Hillhouse, T.L. and H.N. Pitre (1974): Comparison of sampling techniques to obtain measurements of insect populations on soybeans. J. Econ. Entomol., 67: 411-414 pp.
[30] Hsu, J.C.; S.B. Horng and W.J. Wu (2001): Spatial Distribution and Sampling of Aulacaspis yabunikkei (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in Camphor Trees. Plant Prot. Bull. 43: 69-81 pp.
[31] Iwao, S. and E. Kuno (1968): Use of the regression of mean crowding on mean density for estimating sample size and the transformation of data for the analysis of variance. Res. Popul. Ecol., 10:210-214 pp.
[32] Kuno, E. (1969): A new method of sequential sampling to obtain the population estimates with a fixed Ievel of precision. Res. Popul. Ecol. (Kyoto) 11: 127-136 pp.
[33] Lee, D.H.; J.J. Park; H. Park and K. Cho (2005): Estimation of leafmine density of Liriomyza trifolii in cherry tomato greenhouse using fixed precision sequential sampling plans. J. Asia-Pacific Entomol., 8:81-86 pp.
[34] Lindblade, K.A.; E.D. Walker and M.L. Wilson (2000): Early warning of malaria epidemics in African highlands using anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) indoor resting density. J Med Entomol 37:666–674 pp.
[35] Li, N.; Q. Chen; J. Zhu; X. Wang; J.B. Huang and G.H. Huang (2017): Seasonal dynamics and spatial distribution pattern of Parapoynx crisonalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on water chestnuts. PLoS One 12(9): 1-13.
[36] Lloyd, M. (1967): Mean crowding. J. Animal Eco., 36: 1– 30 pp.
[37] Moradi-Vajargah, M.; A. Golizadeh; H. Rafiee-Dastjerdi; M.P. Zalucki; M. Hassanpour and B. Naseri (2011): Population Density and Spatial Distribution Pattern of Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Ardabil, Iran. Not. Bot. Horti. Agrobo, 39(2):42-48 pp.
[38] MSTATC (1980): A Microcomputer Program of the Design Management and Analysis of Agronomic Research Experiments. Michigan State Univ., USA.
[39] Nabil, H.A.; A.A. Shahein; K.A.A. Hammad; and A.S. Hassan (2012): Ecological studies of Aulacaspis tubercularis (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) and its natural enemies infesting mango trees in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Egypt. Acad. J. Biolog. Sci., 5(3): 9-17 pp.
[40] Naeimamini, S.; H. Abbasipour and S. Aghajanzadeh (2014): Spatial distribution of the cottony camellia scale, Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in the tea orchards. J. of Plant Prot. Res., 54 (1): 44-52 pp.
[41] Naseri, B.; Y. Fathipour and A.A. Talebi (2009): Population density and spatial distribution pattern of Empoasca decipiens (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on different bean species. J. Agric. Sci. Technol., Vol. 11: 239-248 pp.
[42] Nematollahi, M.R.; Y. Fathipour; A.A. Talebi; J. Karimzadeh and M. P. Zalucki (2014): Sampling Procedure and Temporal-Spatial Distribution of the Cabbage Aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on Canola J. Agr. Sci. Tech., Vol. 16: 1241-1252 pp.
[43] Patil, G.P. and W.M. Stiteler (1974) Concepts of aggregation and their quantification: a critical review with some new results and applications. Research Population Ecology, 15: 238-254 pp.
[44] Payandeh, A.; K. Kamali and Y. Fathipour (2010): Population structure and seasonal activity of Ommatissus lybicus in bam region of Iran (Homoptera: Tropiduchidae). Munis Entomology & Zoology, 5 (2): 726-733 pp.
[45] Pedigo, L.P. and G.D. Buntin (1994): Handbook of sampling methods for arthropods in agriculture. CRC Press, Florida. Power law. Environ. Entomol. 24 (3): 506–512 pp.
[46] Sayed, A.M.M. (2012): Influence of certain bio-agents and climatic changes on the population density of the white mango scale insect, Aulacaspis tubercularis (Newstead). Egypt. J. Agric. Res. 90 (2): 607-624 pp.
[47] Sedaratian, A.; Y. Fathipour; A.A. Talebi and S. Farahani (2010): Population density and spatial distribution pattern of Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on different soybean varieties. J. Agri. Sci. Tech., 12: 275-288 pp.
[48] Selim, A.A. (2002): Integrated control of Scale insects on certain fruit trees. Ph.D. Diss, Fac. Agric., Al-Azhar Univ., 173 pp.
[49] Southwood, T.R.E. (1995): Ecological methods, with particular reference to the study of insect population Chapman and Hall, London.
[50] Southwood, T.R.E. and P.A. Henderson (2000): Ecological methods. 3rd ed. Blackwell Sciences, Oxford.
[51] Taylor, L.R. (1961): Aggregation, variance to the mean. Nature 189: 732-735 pp.
[52] Taylor, L.R. (1984): Assessing and interpreting the spatial distributions of insect populations. Ann. Rev. Entomol., 29: 321-357 pp.
[53] Tonhasca, Jr.A.; J.C. Palumbo and D.N. Byrne (1996): Evaluation of the power law and patchiness regressions with regression diagnostics. J. Econ. Entomol. 89: 1477-1484 pp.
[54] Wearing, C.H. (1988): Evaluating the IPM implementation process. Ann Rev Entomol., 33:17-38 pp.
[55] Wipfli, M.S.; S.S. Peterson; D.B. Hogg and J.L. Wedberg (1992): Dispersion patterns and optimum sample size analyses for three plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) species associated with Birds foot trefoil in Wisconsin. Environ. Entomol., 21, 1248–1252 pp.