• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2456-8635 (NAAS Rating: 3.43)

International Journal Of Horticulture, Agriculture And Food Science(IJHAF)

Effect of Sakkara Brewing on the Severity of Powdery Mildew Disease of Luffa (Luffa acutangula) and Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under Greenhouse Condition

Shyamalee Kohombange , R.G.A.S. Rajapaksha , Nandun Rathnasekara , M.M.S.P. Munasingha

International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food science(IJHAF), Vol-4,Issue-3, May - June 2020, Pages 126-131, 10.22161/ijhaf.4.3.6

Download | Downloads : 6 | Total View : 1253


Powdery mildew is one of the major production constraint of cucurbits in almost all parts of Sri Lanka.The disease can be controlled with fungicides. However, bio control agents or organic compounds provide economically sound, practically feasible and environmentally safe approach. “Sakkaraa” brewing (SBr) is a fermented aqueous drink based on cane sugar and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Most of the studies assessing the efficacy of yeast as a bio control agent, however, have focused on its effects against some fungi. Two experiments were conducted in parallel to identify the effect of SBr on severity of powdery mildew of Luffa and cucumber varieties under greenhouse condition. Six luffa varieties and twelve cucumber varieties were grown in pots and artificially inoculated with powdery mildew pathogen. Layout of the factorial experiments involving crop varieties and SBr treatments was completely randomized block design with four replications. About 15 days after inoculation of spore suspension of pathogen and when powdery mildew symptoms were well appeared, started the application of diluted SBr on six Luffa varieties and twelve cucumber varieties as an aqueous spray and untreated plants of each Luffa and cucumber variety were kept as control. Disease evaluation and measurements of percentage disease severity index (DSI (%)) of powdery mildew on plants were performed and recorded at flowering stage and fruiting stage. Microscopic observations confirmed that causal agent of powdery mildew of Luffa and cucumber in the country was Podosphaera xanthii. Results of DSI % of powdery mildew in both experiment showed that there was a significant difference between SBr applied treatment and control both at flowering and fruiting stage. Luffa varieties did not show significantly different of DSI (%) of powdery mildew. Popular Luffa variety Naga recorded highest DSI (%) when compared with other tested varieties. Cucumber varieties showed significant difference of DSI (%) of powdery mildew at flowering and fruiting stages. Cucumber var. KWxG17(S) Green and Var. Tunnel Green showed significantly lower DSI (%) of powdery mildew compared to other tested varieties. Results revealed that SBr has remarkable ability of control of powdery mildew and provides an opportunity to produce an effective control tool to protect Luffa and cucumber varieties from powdery mildew disease.

Powdery mildew, Sakkara Brewing (SBr), Luffa, Cucumber.

[1] Mcgrath, M. T. Powdery mildew. In: Keinath, A. P, Wintermantel, W. M.; Zitter, T. A. (Eds.). Compendium of cucurbit diseases and insect pests. 2. ed. St. Paul: PS Press, 2017. p. 62-64.
[2] Stadnik, M. J, Bettiol, W. Oídios de cucurbitáceas. In: Stadnik, M. J.; Kobori, R. F.; Rivera, M. C. Oídios. Jaguariuna: Embrapa Meio Ambiente, 2001
[3] Kuzuya, M. Powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) resistance in melon is categorized into two types based on inhibition of the infection processes. Journal of Experimental Botany, v. 57, n. 9, p. 2093-2100, 2006.
[4] Prado G, Madeira JEG, MoralsVA D, Oliveira MS, SouzaRA, Peluzio JM, Godoy IJ, Silva JFM, Pimento RS. Reduction of aflatoxin B1 in stored peanuts (Arachishypogaea L.) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 2011. J Food Protect. 74:1003–1006
[5] Somai BM, Belewa V. Aqueous extract of Tulbaghiaviolaceainhibit germination of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus conidia. 2011. J Food Protect. 74:1007–1011.
[6] Velmourougane K, Bhat R, Gopinandhan TN, Panneerselvam P. Management of Aspergillus ochraceus and ochratoxin-A contamination in coffee during on-farm processing through commercial yeast inoculation. 2011. Biol Control. 57:215–221.
[7] Santos, A., A. Sánchez, and D. Marquina. Yeasts as biological agents to control Botrytis cinerea. 2004. Microbiological Research 159(4):331-338.
[8] Elmer, P.A.G., and T. Reglinski. Bio suppression of Botrytis cinerea in grapes. 2006. Plant Pathology 55:155-177
[9] Dal Bello, G., C. Mónaco, C. Rollan, G. Lampugnani, N. Arteta, C. Abramoff. Bio control of postharvest grey mould on tomato by yeasts. 2008. Journal of Phytopathology 156(5):257-263.
[10] Marisol Vargas1, Felipe Garrido1, Nelson Zapata1, and Maritza Tapia1. Isolation And Selection of Epiphytic Yeast For Bio control of Botrytis cinerea PERS. on Table Grapes, Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 72(3) JULY-SEPTEMBER 2012.
[11] Wisniewski, M., C. Biles, S. Droby, R. McLaughlin, C. Wilson, and E. Chalutz. Mode of action of the postharvest bio control yeast Pichia guilliermondii. I. Characterization of the attachment to Botrytis cinerea. 1991. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 39:245-258.
[12] El-Ghaouth, A., Ch. Wilson, and M. Wisniewski. Ultra structural and cyto chemical aspects of the biological control of Botrytis cinerea by Candida saitoana in apple fruit. 1998. Phytopathology 88:282-291.
[13] Rabosto, X., M. Garrau, A. Paz, E. Boido, E. Dellacassa, and F. Carrau. Grapes and vineyard soils as source of microorganisms for biological control of Botrytis cinerea. 2006. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 57:332-338.
[14] Paulitz, T. C. & Belanger, R. R. Biological control in greenhouse systems. 2001. Annu. Rev. Phyto pathol. 39, 103–133.
[15] Avis, T. J. & Bélanger, R. R. Mechanisms and means of detection of biocontrol activity of Pseudozyma yeasts against plant-pathogenic fungi. 2002.FEMS Yeast Res. 2, 5–8.
[16] Jarvis, W. R., Shaw, L. A. and Traquair, J. A. Factors affecting antagonism of cucumber powdery mildew by Stephanoascus flocculosus and S. rugulosus. 1989. Mycol. Res. 92, 162–165.
[17] Hajlaoui, M. R., Benhamou, N. &Bélanger, R. R. Cytochemical study of the antagonistic activity of Sporothrix flocculosa on rose powdery mildew Sphaerothecapannosa var. rosae. 1992. Cytol. Histol. 82, 583–589
[18] Hajlaoui, M. R., Traquair, J. A., Jarvis, W. R. &Bélanger, R. R. Antifungal activity of extracellular metabolites produced by Sporothrix flocculosa. 1994. Bio control Sci. Technol. 4, 229–237.
[19] Hammami, W. Ecological basis of the interaction between Pseudozyma flocculosa and powdery mildew fungi. 2011. Appl. Environ.Micobiol. 77, 926–933
[20] Mcgrath, M. 2006. Occurrence of fungicide resistance in Podosphaera xanthii and impact on controlling cucurbit powdery mildew in New York. In: CUCURBITACEAE Asheville. Proceedings… Asheville: Universal Press, 2006. p. 473-482.
[21] Sedláková, B. and Lebeda, A. Fungicide resistance in Czech populations of cucurbit powdery mildews. 2008. Phyto parasitica, v. 36, n. 3, p. 272-289.
[22] Shyamalee Kohombange, Rajapaksha, R.G.A.S. and Nandun Rathnasekara. Effects of Foliar Application of “Sakkaraa” Brewing on the Growth, Flowering and Fruit Setting of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Plants under Greenhouse Condition. 2019. International Journal of Current Innovations in Advanced Research, 2(4): 39-43.
[23] Shyamalee Kohombange, Rajapaksha, R.G.A.S. and Nandun Rathnasekara. Effects of Foliar Application of “Sakkaraa” Brewing on the Growth, Flowering and Fruit Setting of Ridge gourd (Lufffa acutangula) Plants under Greenhouse Condition. 2019. International Journal of Current Innovations in Advanced Research, 2(3): 23-28.
[24] Zheng R.Y. and G.Q. Chen, Sydowia. 1981. 34, 214–327
[25] Mayee, C. D. and Datar, V. V. Phytopathopmety. Technical Bulletin-1 (special bulletin-3), Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani, Maharasthra, India, 1986, PP: 29.
[26] Wheeler, B.E. an Introduction to Plant Diseases. John Wiley and Sons, London. 1969.
[27] Droby S, Wisniewski M, Macarisin D, Wilson C Twenty years of postharvest bio control research: is it time for a new paradigm. 2009. Postharvest BiolTechnol 52:137–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.postharvbi o.2008.11.009.
[28] Punja ZK, Utkhede RS. 2003. Using fungi and yeasts to manage vegetable crop diseases. Trends Bio technol 21:400–407.https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0167-7799(03)00193-8.
[29] Wisniewski M, Droby S. Bio preservation of food and feed by postharvest bio control with microorganisms. In: Sundh I, WilcksA, Goettel MS (eds) Beneficial microorganisms in agriculture, food and the environment. CABI International, Oxford shire, 2012. pp57–66.
[30] Hatoum, R., Labrie, S., and Fliss, I. Antimicrobial and probiotic properties of yeasts: from fundamental to novel applications. 2012. Front. Micro biol. 3:421. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2012.00421
[31] Massart, S., Perazzolli, M., Höfte, M., Pertot, I., and Jijakli, M. H. Impact of the omic technologies for understanding the modes of action of biological control agents against plant pathogens. 2015. Bio Control 60,725–746.doi:10.1007/s10526-015-9686-z.