• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2456-8635 (NAAS Rating: 3.43)

International Journal Of Horticulture, Agriculture And Food Science(IJHAF)

Effect of Biochar Issued from Crop Wastes on the Yield of Variety 8034 Cassava in the Humid-Forest Agroecological Zone, Cameroon

Billa Samuel Fru , Tsi Evaristus Angwafo

International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food science(IJHAF), Vol-2,Issue-1, January - February 2018, Pages 13-27, 10.22161/ijhaf.2.1.2

Download | Downloads : 9 | Total View : 2577


Cassava is an important food crop cultivated (75%) by smallholder farmers. However, yields are very low and rarely exceed 17tons/ha-1. A study was carried out at Nkolbisson in the humid forest zone (HFZ) of Cameroon to assess the effect of three types of biochar issued from Cassava (CSb), Ricehusk (RHb), and Corncob (CCb) on the root yield of variety 8034 cassava cultivated along a soil fertility gradient. The biochars were produced using an Elsa pyrolysis technology with carbonisation time of 50-58mins and temperature ranging from 400-650 0C. Twelve 8m2 plots were constructed in three sites from the higher elevated, moderately elevated and flat fields. The biochars were applied at 20t.ha-1in three replications in a completely randomized design. Results showed that the biochars were high in nutrients containing 4.17-18.15 g.kg-1 N, 22.26-42.51 mg.kg-1 P, 2.48-4.18 cmol.kg-1 K and pH (H2O: 7.78-10.81) and were significantly higher than the no-input soil containing 0.79 g.kg-1 N, 7.41 mg.kg-1 P, 1.42 cmol.kg-1 K and pH (5.68). Cassava root yield was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in RHb plots (23.22 t.ha-1) than CCb (20.53 t.ha-1), CSb (18.67 t.ha-1) and the no-input soil (16.13 t.ha-1). The addition of biochar particularly RHb, increased nutrient uptake in cassava leaves and roots compared with the no-input soil. The study concludes that biochars with higher N, P and K content tend to increase cassava root yield and suggests increasing the quantity of biochar to 40t/ha-1or continuous application in combination with other farming options such as poultry manure, compost or mineral fertilizer to maximize cassava productivity given the benefits of biochar.

Acidic soils; Biochar; Food security Improved cassava; Nitrogen; Pyrolysis technology

[1] Adepoju OT, Nwangwu JO (2010) Nutrient composition, contribution of noodles and local salad from cassava (Manihot spp) to nutrient intake of Nigerian consumers. Afri J Food Sci. 4(7): 422-426.
[2] Agoyi EE, Afutu E, Chadare FJ, Tumuhairwe JB, Chigeza G (2017) Ureide Essay to Assess N2-fixation Abilities of Soybean (Glycine Max) Genotypes under Different Brady rhizobium Strains. Crop Sci. Biotech. 20 (2): 65-72.
[3] Araki S, Sarr PS 2013. The effect of cassava cultivation on soil acidification. In: Hanna R, Araki S (ed).Cassava Performance under Different Soil Management. FOSAS Project, IRAD, Yaoundé Cameroon pp. 32-36.
[4] ASTM (2009) Standard method for chemical analysis of wood charcoal D1762-84. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Philadelphia, PA.
[5] Baronti S, Vaccari FP, Miglietta F, Genesio I (2014) Impact of biochar application on plant water relations in (Vitisviniera L.). Euro J Agro 53: 38-44
[6] Barrios E, Coutinho HL, Medeiros, CA (2012) Participatory Knowledge Integration on Soil Quality Indicators. ICRAF, Embrapa, CIAT. Nairobi, 178 p
[7] Bertin T, Asaah E, Yuh R, Tchoundjeu Z, Lazare K(2013)Impact of Organic Soil Amendments on the Physical and Yield Components of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in the Highlands of Cameroon. Middle-East J. Sci. Res 17 (12): 1721-1729.
[8] Bhattach AS, Chandra R, Pareek N, Raverkar KP (2016) Biochar and crop residue application to soil: effect on soil biochemical properties, nutrient availability and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Soil Sci 62(8): 1095-1108.
[9] Billa SF, Ngome AF, Tsi EA, Tata NP (2017) Waterleaf (Talinum triangulare) response to biochar application in a humid-tropical forest soil. J Soil Sci Environ Mgt 8(5): 95-103.
[10] Bray RH, Kurtz LT (1945) Determination of Total Organic and Available Forms of Phosphorus in Soils. Soil Sci 59: 39-45.
[11] Djousse BMK, Allaire SE, Munson BA (2016) Quantifying the influence of Eucalyptus bark and corncob biochars on the physical properties of an oxisol under maize cultivation in Dschang Cameroon. 5th North American Biochar Symposium
[12] Dkhil BB, Denden M, Aboud S (2011) Foliar potassium fertilization and its effect on growth, yield and quality of potato grown under loam-sandy soil and semi-arid conditions. Intl J Agri Res 6(7):593-600.
[13] Draper K, Thaye T (2015) The Potential for Biochar to Deliver Greater Sustainability for Coffee Cultivation and Processing. Ithaka Institute for Carbon. Intelligence IBI
[14] Dytham C (2011) Choosing and using statistics: A Biologist’s guide. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons the Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, PO19 8SQ, UK
[15] Emmanuel OA, Clement A, Agnes SB, Chiwona L, Drinah BN (2012) Chemical composition and cyanogenic potential of traditional and high yielding CMD resistant cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties. Intl Food Res J 19(1): 175-181.
[16] Enders A, Hanley K, Whitman T, Joseph S, Lehmann J (2012) Characterization of biochars to evaluate recalcitrance and agronomic performance. Biores Tech 114: 644-53.
[17] FAOSTAT (2011) Food and Agricultural Commodities Production. Rome, Italy. http://faostat.fao.org
[18] Fermont MA, Tittonell PA, Giller KE (2010). Towards understanding factors that govern fertilizer response in cassava: Lessons from East Africa. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 86:133-151.
[19] Guo J, Chen B (2014) Insights on the molecular mechanism for the recalcitrance of biochar: interactive effects of carbon and silicon components. Env Sci Tech 48: 9103-9101.
[20] Heanes DL (1984) Determination of organic C in soils by an improved chromic acid digestion and spectrophotometric procedure. Com Soil Sci Plant Anal 15: 1191-1213.
[21] IRAD (2016) Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD). Annual report, Yaoundé, Cameroon 77 p
[22] Islami T, Guritno B, Utomo WH (2011) Biochar for sustaining productivity of cassava based cropping systems in the degraded lands of East Java, Indonesia. J. Trop Agric 49 (2): 40-46.
[23] Kanmegne J (2004) Slash and Burn Agriculture in the Humid Forest Zone of Southern Cameroon: Soil Quality Dynamics, Improved Fallow Management and Farmers’ Perceptions. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Netherlands.
[24] Keith H, Gaskin J, Cabrera M, Das K (2013) Characterization and Mineralization Rates of Low Temperature Peanut Hull and Pine Chip Biochars. Agro 3: 294-312.
[25] Kimetu JM, Lehmann J (2010) Stability and stabilization of biochar and green manure in soil with different organic carbon contents. Aust J Soil Res 48: 577-585.
[26] Kookana RS (2010) Role of biochar in modifying the environmental fate, bioavailability, and efficacy of pesticides in soils: A review. Soil Res 48 (7): 627-637.
[27] Major J, Rondon M, Molina D, Riha SJ, Lehmann J (2010) Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna Oxisol. Plant Soil 333: 117-128.
[28] Mapiemfu LD, Ngome AF, Eyenga EF, Mbassi JEG, Suh C (2017) Harvesting date influences cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) yield and quality of based-products. Cur Res AgriSci 4(3): 75-83
[29] Mehdi B, Ali RS, Seyed HA (2017). Irrigation and nitrogen managements affect nitrogen leaching and root yield of sugar beet. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst. 108: 211-230.
[30] Morgan NK, Mingan C (2016) Cassava: Nutrient composition and nutritive value in poultry diets. Animal Nutr DOI: 10.1016/j.aninu.2016.08.010
[31] Mouafor BI, Temegne NC, Ngome AF, Malaa D (2016) Farmer’s adoption of improved cassava varieties in the humid forest agroecological zone of Cameroon. Greener J Agri Sci 6(10): 276-284.
[32] Murphy J, Riley JP (1962) A modified single solution method for determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal Chem Acta 27: 31-36.
[33] Ngome AF, Amougou MFC, Tata PI, Ndindeng SA, Mapiemfu LD (2013) Effects of cassava cultivation on soil quality indicators in the humid forest of Cameroon. Greener J AgriSci 3: 451-457.
[34] Njukwe E, Onadipe O, Kirscht B, Mbairanodji A (2014) Cassava processing among small-holder farmers in Cameroon : Opportunities and challenges. Intl. J. Agric. Policy Res 2: 113-124.
[35] Papa SS, Araki S, Njukwe E (2013) Interactions between Cassava Varieties and Soil Characteristics in Crop Production in Eastern Cameroon. African Study Mono34 (4): 187-202.
[36] Rajaie M, Tavakoly AR (2016) Effects of municipal waste compost and nitrogen fertilizer on growth and mineral composition of tomato. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agric 5: 339-347.
[37] Rajkovich S, Enders A, Hanley K, Hyland C, Zimmerman AR, Lehmann J(2012) Corn growth and nitrogen nutrition after additions of biochars with varying properties to a temperate soil. Biol Fert Soils 48(3): 271-284.
[38] Reddy GK, Nagender T, Yerasi PKR (2013) Biochar and its potential benefits: A review. Envt Ecol 31: 2000-2005
[39] Richardson KVA (2013) Quality characteristics, root yield and nutrient composition of six cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties. Gladstone Road Agricultural Centre, Nassau, Bahamas. Crop Res Report No. 18
[40] Saglam M, Dengiz O (2017) Spatial variability of soil penetration resistance in an alluvial delta plain under different land uses. Arch Agron Soil Sci 63(1): 60-73.
[41] Steiner C, Melear N, Harris K, Das KC (2011) Biochar as bulking agent for poultry litter composting. Carbon Manage 2(3): 227-230
[42] Tata NPI, Shackleton C, Degrande A, Tieguhong JC (2017) Addressing constraints in promoting wild edible plants’ utilization in household nutrition: case of the Congo Basin forest area. Agri Food Sec doi.org/10.1186/s40066-017-0097-5
[43] Temegne NC, Mbogne TJ, Nbendah P, Youmbi E, Taffouo VD, Ntsomboh NG (2015) Effect of phosphate deficiency on growth and phosphorus content of three Voandzou (Vigna subterranean (L.) varieties. J Agri Vet Sci 8(9):52-59.
[44] Temegne NC, Mouafor BI, Ngome AF (2016) Agro-morphological characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) collected in the humid forest and guinea savannah agro-ecological zones of Cameroon. Greener J Agri Sci 6 (7): 209-225.
[45] Ukaoma AA, Ogbonnaya CI (2013) Effect of inorganic mineral nutrition on tuber yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) on marginal ultisol of South Eastern Nigeria. J Agri Res 1(9): 172-179.
[46] UrbanFood Plus (2015) African-German partnership to enhance resource use efficiency and improve food security in urban and peri-urban agriculture of West African cities. www.urbanfoodplus.org
[47] USDA (2016) United States Department of Agriculture, Soil phosphorus. Soil quality kit-Guides for Educators nrcs142p2_053254.pdf
[48] USDA (2017) United States Department of Agriculture, National Nutrient Database. www.nutrition-and-you.com
[49] Van Zwieten L, Kimber S, Morris S, Chan KY, Downie A, Rust J (2010) Effect of biochar from slow pyrolysis of paper mill waste on agronomic performance and soil fertility. J Plant Soil 327: 235-246.
[50] Walkley A, Black IA (1934) Examination of digestion method for determining soil organic matter and a modification of the chromic acid titration. Soil Sci. 37: 29-38
[51] Weyers SL, Spokas KA (2014) Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar-amended plot. Solid Earth 5: 499-507.
[52] Yuan JH, Xu RK, Qian W, Wang RH (2011) Comparison of the ameliorating effects on an acidic ultisol between four crop straws and their biochars. J Soil Sed 11: 741–750.