• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2456-8635

International Journal Of Horticulture, Agriculture And Food Science(IJHAF)

Assessing Multifunctionality and Sustainability of Peri-Urban Farming: A Case Study in The Casablanca Metropolitan Area (Morocco)


International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food science(IJHAF), Vol-6,Issue-2, March - April 2022, Pages 1-6, 10.22161/ijhaf.6.2.1

Download | Downloads : 2 | Total View : 296

Article Info: Received: 07 Feb 2022; Received in revised form: 10 Mar 2022; Accepted: 25 Mar 2022; Available online: 06 Apr 2022


Considering the increase in urban population and land consumption in the last decades, sustainability in peri-urban areas is a priority. Farming multifunctionality is the integration of different functions and activities that produce beneficial effects on local economy, environment and society. Recently, in many countries around the world, increasing support for and promotion of urban and peri-urban agriculture has been made, but in Morocco few research investigates its multifunctionality and its sustainability in relation with the future development of Moroccan cities. This research aims to contribute in this sense. Therefore, it underlines the potentials and challenges of peri-urban farming in the outskirts of Casablanca metropolis. Hence, the study is based on qualitative methods such as literature review, observation, subjective viewpoints, mapping and interviews. The research findings show a diversification of peri-urban production systems (vegetable crops, arboriculture, cereals, leguminous, fodder crops and cattle, sheep and poultry farming). Peri-urban farms are medium to large, mostly family owned and managed by elderly-experienced people. It is a multifunctional agriculture: it contributes to the economic development of the metropolis by creating jobs and generating income for farmers. It contributes to the food supply and the environmental beatification of the city. However, farms are facing several constraints that hinder their management, in particular strong urban pressure and its consequences, the insufficiency and high cost of labor, water shortage following the effects of climate change and the overexploitation of groundwater, the lack of technical support for farmers and the need to define the place of peri-urban agriculture in the city's sustainable development projects.

Morocco, multifunctionality, sustainability, sustainable development, Urban and peri-urban farming.

[1] L. Newman, L. Jordan Powell, H. Wittman, “Landscapes of food production in agriburbia: Farmland protection and local food movements” in British Columbia. J. Rural Stud. 2015, 39, pp.99–110.
[2] B. Pölling, W. Sroka, W. Lorleberg, “Success of urban farming’s city-adjustments and business models—Findings from a survey among farmers in Ruhr Metropolis” Germany. Land Use Policy 2016, 58, pp.366–379.
[3] K. Adem, “Urban expansion and the neighborhoods: the case of Bishoftu Town, East Shewa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia”, Addis Ababa University, 2010.
[4] R. Marshall, “On the edge of sustainability: perspectives on peri-urban dynamics”, STEPS Working Paper 35. STEPS Centre, Brighton, 2009.
[5] B.B. Lin, S.M. Philpott, S. Jha, “The future of urban agriculture and biodiversity-ecosystem services: Challenges and next steps”, Basic Appl. Ecol. 2015, 16, pp.189–201.
[6] D. Lee-Smith, “Cities feeding people: an update on urban agriculture in equatorial Africa”, Environment and Urbanization, 22 (2), 2010, pp.483-499.
[7] J. Smit, A. Ratta. and J. Nasr, “Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities”, UNDP, 1996, pp.18.
[8] C.T. Soulard, E. Valette, C. Perrin, P. Abrantes, T. Anthopoulou, O. Benjaballah, S. Bouchemal, P. Dugué, M. El Amrani, S. Lardon, et al., “Peri-urban agro-ecosystems in the Mediterranean: Diversity, dynamics, and drivers”, Reg. Environ. Chang. 2017.
[9] D. La Rosa, L. Barbarossa, R. Privitera, F. Martinico, “Agriculture and the city: A method for sustainable planning of new forms of agriculture in urban contexts”. Land Use Policy 2014, 41, pp.290–303.
[10] R. Van Veenhuizen, “Cities farming for the future. Cities farming for future, Urban Agriculture for green and productive cities”, RUAF Foundation, IDRC and IIRP, ETC-Urban agriculture, Leusden, The Netherlands.2006, pp.2-17.
[11] C. Aubry, “L'agriculture urbaine, contributrice des stratégies alimentaires des mégapoles?”. In 24. Journées Scientifiques de l'Environnement-La transition écologique des mégapoles,2013, pp. 11.
[12] H. De Zeeuw, R. Van Veenhuizen & M. Dubbeling, (2011). “The role of urban agriculture in building resilient cities in developing countries”. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 149(S1), 2011, pp.153-163.
[13] R. Andreas, “Elements of urban fringe patterns”. Economics, 28, 1942.
[14] J.B. Garnier and G. Chabot, “Urban Geoghraphy”. London: Longmans Green and Co. Ltd, 1967.
[15] H.L. Singh, “The Rural Urban Fringe Study's”. The Geographer Vol. XIV, 1967.
[16] G.S. Wehrwein, “The Rural Urban Fringe”, Economic Geoghraphy, 8, 1942.
[17] R.E. Dickinson, “The City Region in Western Europe”. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd, 1967.
[18] R. Pryor, “Defining The Rural Urban Fringe in Larry S. Bourne (ed.) The Internal Structure of The City: Readings on Space and Environment”, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.
[19] H.S. Yunus, “Megapolitan: Konsep, Problematika dan Prospek”. Yogyakarta: Student Book, 2006.
[20] H.S. Yunus, “Dinamika Wilayah Peri-urban sebagai penentu masa depan kota”. Yogyakarta: Student Book, 2008.
[21] P.U. Direktorat Jenderal Penataan, “Ruang, Metropolitan di Indonesia: kenyataan dan tantangan dalam penataan ruang”. Jakarta, 2006.
[22] M. Dubbeling, & H. De Zeeuw, “Multi-stakeholder policy formulation and action planning for sustainable urban agriculture development”. RUAF Working Paper No. 1. Leusden, The Netherlands: RUAF Foundation, 2007. Available online at: http://www.ruaf.org/taxonomy/term/45/0?page=1 (Accessed on 7 June 2021).
[23] Regional Inspection of Housing, “Urban Planning and Spatial Planning of Greater Casablanca. Greater Casablanca Region. Territories: Challenges and Ambitions”. SIPAMA, Casablanca. 2010. Available online:http://casainvest.ma/sites/default/files/etudes/Amenagement_Casa_defis_ambitions.pdf (Accessed on 7 June 2021).
[24] High Commissioner for Planning, “Regional Directorate of Casablanca. Activity, Employment and Unemployment”, 2015. Available online: www.hcp.ma/reg-casablanca (Accessed on 15 June 2021).
[25] High Commissioner for Planning, “Regional Directorate of Casablanca. General Census of Population and Housing 2014”, Presentation Note of the First Results Greater Casablanca Region, 2014.
Available online: www.hcp. ma/reg-casablanca/attachment/673642/ (Accessed on 15 June 2021).
[26] S. Pauleit, D.O. Pribadi & H. Abo El Wafa, “Peri-urban agriculture: lessons learnt from Jakarta and Addis Ababa”, Field Actions Science Reports. The journal of field actions, (Special Issue 20), 2019, pp.18-25.
[27] D.O. Pribadi, I. Zasada, K. Müller, S. Pauleit, “Multifunctional adaptation of farmers as response to urban growth in the Jabodetabek Metropolitan Area, Indonesia”, Journal of Rural Studies, 55, 2017, pp.100-111.
[28] D.O. Pribadi, S. Pauleit, “Peri-urban agriculture in Jabodetabek metropolitan area and its relationship with the urban socioeconomic system”, Land Use Policy, 55, 2016, pp.265-274.
[29] C. Aubry, “L'agriculture urbaine, contributrice des stratégies alimentaires des mégapoles? ”, In 24. Journées Scientifiques de l'Environnement-La transition écologique des mégapoles, 2013, pp. 11-p.
[30] I. Bellwood-Howard, V. Häring, H. Karg, R. Roessler, J. Schlesinger & M. Shakya, “Characteristics of urban and peri-urban agriculture in West Africa: results of an exploratory survey conducted in Tamale (Ghana) and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)”, (Vol. 163). International Water Management Institute (IWMI), 2015.
[31] F. Hakimi, “Development potentials and sustainability challenges of peri-urban farming in the metropolis of Rabat (Morocco)”, Journal of Analytical Sciences and Applied Biotechnology, 3(2), 2021, pp.78-83.
[32] A.M. Jouve & M. Padilla, “Les agricultures périurbaines méditerranéennes à l'épreuve de la multifonctionnalité: comment fournir aux villes une nourriture et des paysages de qualité?”, Cahiers agricultures, 16(4), 2007, pp.311-317.
[33] H.M. Maachou & T. Otmane, “L’agriculture périurbaine à Oran (Algérie): diversification et stratégies d’adaptation” Cahiers Agricultures, 25(2), 2016.
[34] L.T.P. Moustier, “Les fonctions et contraintes de l'agriculture périurbaine de quelques villes africaines (Yaoundé, Cotonou, Dakar) ”, Cahiers agricultures, 13(1), 2004, pp.15-22.
[35] I. Mohammed, A. Kosa & N. Juhar, “Economic linkage between urban development and livelihood of peri-urban farming communities in Ethiopia (policies and practices)”, Agricultural and Food Economics, 8(1), 2020, pp.1-17.
[36] A. Boudjenouia, A. Fleury and A. Tacherift, “L'agriculture périurbaine à Sétif (Algérie): quel avenir face à la croissance urbaine?”, BASE, Vol 12, 2008, pp.23-30.