• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2456-8791

International Journal Of Forest, Animal And Fisheries Research(IJFAF)

Colonizing the Wild Elephant of Cachar (1850-1950)

Mohd. Shakir Hussain Choudhury , Habibullah Mazumdar

Article Info: Received: 03 Apr 2022; Received in revised form: 18 Apr 2022; Accepted: 23 Apr 2022; Available online:30 Apr 2022

Download | Downloads : 7 | Total View : 713

DOI: 10.22161/ijfaf.6.2.1

Journal : International Journal Of Forest, Animal And Fisheries Research(IJFAF)


Elephants have always played a significant role in Cachar's history. Elephant hunting was a monopoly of the British government in India during colonial rule as of its strategic importance. Elephants were given special attention by colonial officials because of their ability to navigate forests, their Tusks, and their role in hunting. The elephant capturing and management procedure was under British authority because it was one of the most important sources of revenue for the British government. Due to the poor transit system, the colonial rulers kept number of elephants on hand to perform various tasks. The purpose of this paper is to study how elephants were colonized in Cachar. Elephants provide both access and revenue to the government. The capture of elephants (Kheddah), access, and elephant revenue are all explored in this paper. The function of elephants in the Cachar's economic existence is also investigated and analyzed in this study. The research looks on the use of elephants to carry government officials during military operations in Cachar, as well as their role in forest management.

Cachar, Elephant, Forest, Kheddah, Revenue

[1] The Bengal and Agra annual guide and gazetteer for 1841. Vol. II. Third Edition William Rushton and Co. Calcutta 1841 pp.95-96.
[2] Government of Bengal: (1868) Principal Heads of the History and Statistics of the Dacca Division, E.M Lewis, Calcutta, Central Press Company Ltd. pp.328.
[3] Hunter W. W. The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Volume II. Trübner & Co., London, 1881.pp 310.
[4] Datta.S,” Cachar District Record: Letters Subsequent to the annexation of Cachar, published by Asiatic Society, 2007.
[5] Government of Assam: Report of the Administration of the Province of Assam for the year 1874-75. Shillong, Assam Secretariat Press, 1877 page12.
[6] Gee, E.P. (1950). Wild Elephants in Assam. Oryx, 1(1), 16 Doi: 10.1017/s0030605300035626 .
[7] Geetashree Singh “Colonising Elephant Hunting in Assam (1826–1947) Indian Historical Review (IF), PubDate : 2020-12-01, DOI: 10.1177/0376983620968019
[8] Saikia. A,” Forests and Ecological History of Assam, 1826-2000, Oxford University Press, New Delhi , India
[9] Rangarajan, M.,(2005) “India’s Wildlife History “, New Delhi: Permanent Black.
[10] Hunter W. W., The Indian empire: its people, history, and products “ London,1886 ; New Delhi, 2005, p.521
[11] Milroy A.J.W.” Elephant Catching in Assam” Asian Elephant Specialist Group Newsletter Number 8.1992 p 38-46.
[12] Choudhury .A, ”Status of Wild Elephants Elephas Maximus (Linn.) in Cachar and North Cachar Hills, Assam— A Preliminary Investigation” Published 1991 Biology Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society.
[13] Butler, J. (1847). A Sketch of Assam by an Officer. Smith, Elder & Co., London.
[14] Seshadri, B. (1969). The Twilight of India's Wildlife. Baker.
[15] Olivier Robert, Distribution and status of the Asian Elephant.
[16] Datta op.cit.
[17] Principal op.cit .pp.368-69
[18] Sányál R.B “Hand- Book of the Management of Animals in Captivity in Lower Bengal, Calcutta. Printed at The Bengal Secretariat Press.1892.
[19] Principal op.cit .pp .371-72
[20] Singh .G “Hunting To Conservation: A Study Of British Policies Towards Wildlife In Assam (1826-1947).
[21] Simmonds P. L. “Animal Products: Their Preparation, Commercial Uses, and Value., By Chapman and Hall , 193 , Piccadilly 1877, 338-39,
[22] Principal op.cit.pp.372-73
[23] Further Papers (No.7) Relative To The Mutinies In The East Indies. Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. London 1857 pp, 228
[24] Gustav Mann ,“Progress Report of Forest Administration in the Province of Assam”, for the year 1874-75, Shillong , Assam Secretariat Press,1875
[25] Newman E “THE ZOOLOGIST : A popular Miscellany of Natural History- Vol-VI London, 1871.page 2560
[26] Government of Assam : (1885) Compilation of the Circulars and General Order of the Chief Commissioner of Assam, P.266
[27] Singh op.cit.
[28] Principal op.cit Statement I.
[29] Government of Assam: “Report of the Administration of the Province of Assam “, 1881-81, pp.167
[30] National Achieves of India (File No. 105 of 197), Government. of India , Department of Revenue and Agriculture, Forests, December, Proceeding No 2 and 3
[31] Progress Report of Forest Administration in the Province of Assam for the year 1897-99, 1927-48.
[32] B.C Allen “Assam District Gazetteers “ Vol-I, Cachar, , C.S, Calcutta, Printed at the Baptist Mission Press, 1905
[33] Compilation, op.cit p266-67.
[34] Government of Assam: Report of the Administration of the Province of Assam 1899-1900.p.cxl.
[35] Principal Head op.cit, Statement No-III.
[36] Paul G. Keil,” On the Trails of Free-Roaming Elephants Human-Elephant Mobility and History
across the Indo-Myanmar Highlands, Transfers Vol 10,Issue23,doi:10.3167/TRANS.2020.10020302 ISSN: 2045-4813 (print) 2045-4821
[37] Accounts and Papers: Thirty-Six Volumes. East India- Continued .Cachar; Euphrates Valley Route; Kook - A Outbreak.Session6 February 10 August 1872. Vol. XIV, p.223.
[38] Allen op.cit , p.108-109