• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2456-7817

International Journal Of Engineering, Business And Management(IJEBM)

Global Financial Outlook during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The role of effective leadership styles on Financial outlook

Nabaz Nawzad Abdullah , Govand Anwar

International Journal of Engineering, Business And Management(IJEBM), Vol-5,Issue-2, March - April 2021, Pages 8-20 , 10.22161/ijebm.5.2.2

Download | Downloads : 9 | Total View : 1411

Article Info: Received: 01 Dec 2020; Received in revised form: 25 Jan 2021; Accepted: 27 Feb 2021; Available online: 31 Mar 2021


The current study's main goal is to look into the relationship between leadership styles and Erbil's financial outlook. Government officials, administrators, and leaders of large companies and organisations make critical decisions on a regular basis and expect positive outcomes in achieving their goals. 130 participants were involved in the present study. The results revealed that the highest value among all leadership styles was charismatic leadership. According to the research findings, there are more to uncover on the subject of leadership styles and Financial outlook in Erbil. A bigger sample size and including all the key races in Erbil would provide support for further studies.

COVID-19 Pandemic, Financial outlook, Charismatic Leadership, Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership, Erbil.

[1] Fries, A., Kammerlander, N., & Leitterstorf, M. (2020). Leadership Styles and Leadership Behaviors in Family Firms: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 100374.
[2] Kalkan, Ü., Altınay Aksal, F., Altınay Gazi, Z., Atasoy, R., & Dağlı, G. (2020). The relationship between school administrators’ leadership styles, school culture, and organizational image. Sage Open, 10(1), 2158244020902081.
[3] Khan, M. A., Ismail, F. B., Hussain, A., & Alghazali, B. (2020). The interplay of leadership styles, innovative work behavior, organizational culture, and organizational citizenship behavior. SAGE Open, 10(1), 2158244019898264.
[4] Anwar, K. (2017). Analyzing the conceptual model of service quality and its relationship with guests ‘satisfaction: a study of hotels in Erbil. The International Journal of Accounting and Business Society, 25(2), 1-16.
[5] Alblooshi, M., Shamsuzzaman, M., & Haridy, S. (2020). The relationship between leadership styles and organisational innovation. European Journal of Innovation Management.
[6] Akkaya, B. (2020). Review of leadership styles in perspective of dynamic capabilities: An empirical research on managers in manufacturing firms. Yönetim Bilimleri Dergisi, 18(36), 389-407
[7] Gemeda, H. K., & Lee, J. (2020). Leadership styles, work engagement and outcomes among information and communications technology professionals: A cross-national study. Heliyon, 6(4), e03699.
[8] Anwar, K. (2016). Comparison between cost leadership and differentiation strategy in agricultural businesses. Custos E Agronegocio on Line, 12(2), 212-231.
[9] Shkoler, O., & Tziner, A. (2020). Leadership styles as predictors of work attitudes: a moderated-mediation link. Amfiteatru economic, 22(53), 164-178.
[10] Abdullah, N. N., & Abdul Rahman, M. (2015). The use of deliberative democracy in public policy making process. Abdullah, NN & Rahman, MFA (2015). The Use of Deliberative Democracy in Public Policy Making Process. Public Policy and Administration Research, 5(3), 221-229.
[11] Ardi, A., Djati, S. P., Bernarto, I., Sudibjo, N., Yulianeu, A., Nanda, H. A., & Nanda, K. A. (2020). The Relationship Between Digital Transformational Leadership Styles and Knowledge-Based Empowering Interaction for Increasing Organisational Innovativeness. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 11(3), 259-277.
[12] Abdullah, N. N., & Othman, M. (2016). The contribution of human capital investment in the growth of East Asian economy–A literature review. Journal of Economic and Business Research, 22(1), 190-203.
[13] Drewniak, R., Drewniak, Z., & Posadzinska, I. (2020). Leadership styles and employee expectations. European Research Studies, 23, 398-411.
[14] Abdullah, M. S., Toycan, M., & Anwar, K. (2017). The cost readiness of implementing e-learning. CUSTOS E AGRONEGOCIO ON LINE, 13(2), 156-175.
[15] Mwesigwa, R., Tusiime, I., & Ssekiziyivu, B. (2020). Leadership styles, job satisfaction and organizational commitment among academic staff in public universities. Journal of Management Development.
[16] Anwar, K., & Balcioglu, H. (2016). The relationship between transformational leadership characteristics and effectiveness: A case study of construction companies in Erbil. International Journal of Science Technology and Management, 5(2), 250-256.
[17] Kindarto, A., Zhu, Y. Q., & Gardner, D. G. (2020). Full Range Leadership Styles and Government IT Team Performance: The Critical Roles of Follower and Team Competence. Public Performance & Management Review, 43(4), 889-917.
[18] Lonati, S. (2020). What explains cultural differences in leadership styles? On the agricultural origins of participative and directive leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 31(2), 101305.
[19] Anwar, K. (2017). The Role of Effective Leadership in Crisis Management: Study of Private Companies in Kurdistan. Qalaai Zanist Scientific Journal, 2(4), 326-338.
[20] Alheet, A., Adwan, A., Areiqat, A., Zamil, A., & Saleh, M. (2021). The effect of leadership styles on employees’ innovative work behavior. Management Science Letters, 11(1), 239-246.
[21] Javed, S., Malik, A., & Alharbi, M. M. H. (2020). The relevance of leadership styles and Islamic work ethics in managerial effectiveness. PSU Research Review.
[22] Hameed, A. A., & Anwar, K. (2018). Analyzing the Relationship between Intellectual Capital and Organizational Performance: A Study of Selected Private Banks in Kurdistan. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 4(4), 39.
[23] Sims, C., Carter, A., & Moore De Peralta, A. (2021). Do servant, transformational, transactional, and passive avoidant leadership styles influence mentoring competencies for faculty? A study of a gender equity leadership development program. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 32(1), 55-75.
[24] Darawong, C. (2020). The influence of leadership styles on new product development performance: the moderating effect of product innovativeness. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics.
[25] Anwar, K., & Ghafoor, C. (2017). Knowledge management and organizational performance: A study of private universities in Kurdistan. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 4(2), 53.
[26] Othman, M., & Abdullah, N. N. (2016). The conceptual assessment of Malaysian entrepreneurship environment and EO economic contribution. Othman, M., Saud, MB, Mat Isa, MA, & Abdullah, NN (2015). The Conceptual Assessment of Malaysian Entrepreneurship Environment and EO Economic Contribution. Journal of Resources Development and Management, 20, 15-20.
[27] Asgari, A., Mezginejad, S., & Taherpour, F. (2020). The role of leadership styles in organizational citizenship behavior through the mediation of perceived organizational support and job satisfaction. Innovar, 30(75), 87-98.
[28] Anwar, K. (2017). Factors affecting stock exchange investment in Kurdistan. The International Journal of Accounting and Business Society, 25(1), 32-37.
[29] Prabhu, M., Abdullah, N. N., Ahmed, R. R., Nambirajan, T., & Pandiyan, S. (2020). Segmenting the manufacturing industries and measuring the performance: Using interval-valued triangular fuzzy TOPSIS method. Complex & Intelligent Systems, 6, 591-606.
[30] Anwar, K., & Qadir, G. H. (2017). A Study of the Relationship between Work Engagement and Job Satisfaction in Private Companies in Kurdistan. International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science, 3(12), 239944.
[31] Budiasih, Y., Hartanto, C. F. B., Ha, T. M., Nguyen, P. T., & Usanti, T. P. (2020). The mediating impact of perceived organisational politics on the relationship between leadership styles and job satisfaction. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 10(11), 478-495.
[32] Curtis, G. J. (2020). Follower‐rated leadership styles, leader behaviours, and leaders' thinking styles: A test of the cognitive experiential leadership model. Australian Journal of Psychology, 72(4), 318-327.
[33] Anwar, K. (2017). Leading Construction Project Teams: The Effectiveness of Transformational Leadership in Dynamic Work Environments in Kurdistan. International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science, 3(10), 239925.
[34] Prabhu, M., Abdullah, N. N., & Madan Mohan, G. (2019). An Empirical Study on the Satisfaction Level of National and International Tourists towards Natural Attractions in Kurdistan. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 8(2), 1-8.
[35] Anwar, G., & Shukur, I. (2015). The Impact of Training and Development on Job Satisfaction: A Case Study of Private Banks in Erbil. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 2(1), 65.
[36] Dartey-Baah, K., & Mekpor, B. (2020). Beyond the job description Exploring the mediating role of leaders’ emotional intelligence on the nexus between leadership styles and voluntary workplace behaviours in the Ghanaian banking sector.
[37] Abdullah, N. N., & Othman, M. B. (2019). Examining the effects of intellectual capital on the performance of Malaysian food and beverage small and medium-sized enterprises. Technology (IJCIET), 10(2), 135-143.
[38] Anwar, G., & Shukur, I. (2015). Job satisfaction and employee turnover intention: A case study of private hospital in Erbil. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 2(1), 73.
[39] Mehta, M. (2020). Effect of leadership styles on corporate entrepreneurship: a critical literature review. Organization Development Journal, 38(2), 65-74.
[40] Abdullah, N. N., & Othman, M. B. (2019). Examining the effects of intellectual capital on the performance of Malaysian food and beverage small and medium-sized enterprises. Technology (IJCIET), 10(2), 135-143.
[41] Anwar, G., & Shukur, I. (2015). the impact of recruitment and selection on job satisfaction: Evidence from private school in Erbil. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 1(3), 4-13.
[42] Celdrana, M. C. B. (2020). Leadership styles and job satisfaction in the colleges of nursing among the universities in Zamboanga City. Leadership, 11(7).
[43] Sudha, K. S., & Shahnawaz, M. G. (2020). Narcissism personality trait and performance: task-oriented leadership and authoritarian styles as mediators. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.
[44] Anwar, G., & Abd Zebari, B. (2015). The Relationship between Employee Engagement and Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case Study of Car Dealership in Erbil, Kurdistan. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 2(2), 45.
[45] Prabhu, M., Nambirajan, T., & Abdullah, N. N. (2020). Analytical review on competitive priorities for operations under manufacturing firms. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 13(1), 38-55.
[46] Khan, S., & Abdullah, N. N. (2019). The impact of staff training and development on teachers’ productivity. Economics, Management and Sustainability, 4(1).
[47] Anwar, G., & Shukur, I. (2015). The Impact of Service Quality Dimensions on Students’ Satisfaction. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 76.
[48] Rizan, M., Warokka, A., Wibowo, A., & Febrilia, I. (2020). Leadership Styles and Customer Loyalty: A Lesson from Emerging Southeast Asia's Airlines Industry. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 7(9), 477-488.
[49] Rabiul, M. K., & Yean, T. F. (2021). Leadership styles, motivating language, and work engagement: An empirical investigation of the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 92, 102712.
[50] Adam, J. K., Indradewa, R., & Syah, T. Y. R. (2020). The leadership styles impact, in learning organizations, and organizational innovation towards organizational performance over manufacturing companies, Indonesia. Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic, 4(2), 63-69.