• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2456-866X

International Journal Of Chemistry, Mathematics And Physics(IJCMP)

Differentiation of high velocity ammunition type from Gunshot Residue (GSR) metal element originating from different firearm

Abhijitsinh A Parmar , Rajesh G Babu , S.O Junare


International Journal of Chemistry, Mathematics And Physics(IJCMP), Vol-6,Issue-2, March - April 2022, Pages 18-23 , 10.22161/ijcmp.6.2.2

Download | Downloads : | Total View : 84

Article Info: Received: 30 Mar 2022; Received in revised form: 19 Apr 2022; Accepted: 26 Apr 2022; Available online: 30 Apr 2022

Share

The examination of GSR collected from the scene of occurrence is critical to the forensic science community because it provides answers to problems such as distinguishing between entry and exit wounds, estimating the range of fire, and linking an individual to the use of a firearm. Insufficient information exists on the differentiation of ammunition type through the analysis of GSR. This study investigated the potential of differentiating between ammunition types through the analysis of its metallic residue using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) and Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Three firearms (AK-47 assault rifle, Self-loading rifle, and Carbine rifle) were adopted for the study. Overall, a series of 10 shots were performed from each firearm at three different collection mode (45°, 90° & Barrel wash) The residues were subjected to a non-destructive analysis by energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence (EDXRF-7000, Shimadzu) without sample preparation and Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy. Gunshot residues originating from 9mm Carbine, AK-47 and Self-loading rifle produced common metal element including Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Antimony (Sb) and Zinc (Zn). Considering that, analysis of the sample residue was carried out EDXRF and SEM-EDS; it was unreliable to predict the ammunition type from the particles that originated from the firearm-ammunition employed. In this study element profile of Gunshot residue give some identical point which can helpful in identification of ammunition.

Gunshot residue (GSR), Ammunition; Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), Forensic ballistics, Self-loading rifle (SLR), AK-47 rifle, 9mm carbine, Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and Stereo Microscope.

[1] O. Dalby, D. Butler, J.W. Birkett, Analysis of gunshot residue and associated materials—a review, J. Forensic Sci. 55 (2010) 924–943.
[2] L.S. Blakey, et al., Fate and behavior of gunshot Residue — a review, J. Forensic Sci. 63 (1) (2018) 9–19.
[3] K.H. Chang, et al., Gunshot residue analysis and its evidential values: a review, Aust. J. Forensic Sci. 45 (1) (2013) 3–23.
[4] F. SaverioRomolo, P. Margot, Identification of gunshot residue: a critical review, Forensic Sci. Int. 119 (2001) 195–211.
[5] A.J. Schwoeble, D.L. Exline, Current Methods in Forensic Gunshot Residue Analysis, CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, 200
[6] Dalby, O., Butler, D., & Birkett, J. W. (2010). Analysis of gunshot residue and associated materials - A review. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55(4), 924–943.
[7] Brozek-Mucha, Z. (2011). Variation of the chemical contents and morphology of gunshot residue in the surroundings of the shooting pistol as a potential contribution to a shooting incidence reconstruction. Forensic Science International, 210(1–3), 31–41.
[8] Aksoy, C., Akman, Y., Ergun, Z. O., Uzek, U., & Aydin, F. (2013). Determination of antimony in gunshot residues using GFAAS and SEM/EDX. Atomic Spectroscopy, 34(5), 170–174.
[9] Saverio Romolo, F., & Margot, P. (2001). Identification of gunshot residue: A critical review. Forensic Science International, 119(2), 195–211.
[10] Schwoeble, A., & Exline, D. L. (2000). Current Methods in Gunshot residue analysis. In CRC Press. Turillazzi, E., Di Peri, G. P., Nieddu, A., Bello, S., Monaci, F., Neri, M., … Fineschi, V. (2013). Analytical and quantitative concentration of gunshot residues (Pb, Sb, Ba) to estimate entrance hole and shooting-distance using confocal laser microscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analysis: An experimental study. Forensic Science International, 231(1–3), 142–149.
[11] Taudte, R. V., Roux, C., Blanes, L., Horder, M., Kirkbride, K. P., & Beavis, A. (2016). The development and comparison of collection techniques for inorganic and organic gunshot residues. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 408(10), 2567–2576.
[12] Z. Abrego, N. Grijalba, N. Unceta, M. Maguregui, A. Sanchez, A. Fernández-Isla, M.A. Goicolea, R.J. Barrio, A novel method for the identification of inorganic and organic gunshot residue particles of lead-free ammunitions from the hands of shooters using scanning laser ablation-ICPMS and Raman micro-spectroscopy, Analyst 139 (2014) 6232–6241.
[13] J. Bueno, V. Sikirzhytski, I.K. Lednev, Raman spectroscopic analysis of gunshot residue offering great potential for caliber differentiation, Anal. Chem. 84 (2012) 4334–4339.
[14] J. Bueno, I.K. Lednev, Raman microspectroscopic chemical mapping and chemometric classification for the identification of gunshot residue on adhesive tape, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406 (2014) 4595–4599.
[15] M. Morelato, et al., Screening of gunshot residues using desorption electro-spray ionisation-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS), Forensic Sci. Int. 217 (1–3) (2012) 101–106.
[16] L. Ali, et al., A study of the presence of gunshot residue in Pittsburgh police stations using SEM/EDS and LC-MS/MS, J. Forensic Sci. 61 (4) (2016) 928–938.
[17] A.L. Gassner, C. Weyermann, LC-MS method development and comparison of sampling materials for the analysis of organic gunshot residues, Forensic Sci. Int. 264 (2016) 47–55.
[18] J.L. Thomas, D. Lincoln, B.R. McCord, Separation and detection of smokeless powder additives by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS), J. Forensic Sci. 58 (3) (2013) 609–615.
[19] M. Gallidabino, et al., Development of a novel headspace sorptive extraction method to study the aging of volatile compounds in spent handgun cartridges, Anal. Chem. 86 (2014) 4471–4478.
[20] M. Gallidabino, F.S. Romolo, C. Weyermann, Characterization of volatile organic gunshot residues in fired handgun cartridges by headspace sorptive extraction, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407 (23) (2015) 7123–7134