• editor.aipublications@gmail.com
  • Track Your Paper
  • Contact Us
  • ISSN: 2455-5304

International Journal Of Civil, Mechanical And Energy Science(IJCMES)

Analysis of Water Quality Characteristics in Distribution Networks

Raber Hamad , Mehmet İshak Yüce

International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science (IJCMES), Vol-8,Issue-1, January - February 2022, Pages 1-6, 10.22161/ijcmes.81.1

Download | Downloads : 6 | Total View : 227

Article Info: Received: 03 Jan 2022; Received in revised form: 11 Feb 2021; Accepted: 20 Feb 2022; Available online: 03 Mar 2022


In this study, a model was developed by Epanet2.0 software to analyze water quality for parameters of hydraulic and water quality model (chlorine concentration and water age model) for a segment of Erbil city WDS by using observed and documented data. Controlling free residual chlorine properly is important to ensure meeting regulatory requirements and satisfying customer needs. For the calibration process and collecting field data digital pressure loggers for recording pressure in a WDS was installed. For discharge measurements, ultrasonic flow meters were used. To assure the reliability of the model a calibration process was carried out for extended period analysis and several alternatives had been studied as a solution to overcome negative pressure zones by the calculated Hazen William C-factor. This kind of study can be used to predict so many infrastructure projects.

Water Quality, Water Distribution system, Calibration, Chlorine Concentration, Water age.

[1] American Water Works Association (1989). “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities.” AWWA Manual M-32, Denver, Colorado
[2] American Water Works Association (1996). “Ductile Iron Pipe and Fitting.” AWWA Manual M-41, Denver, Colorado.
[3] American Water Works Association (1998). “Distribution System Requirements for Fire Protection.” AWWA Manual M-31, Denver, Colorado.
[4] Basford, C., and Sevier, C. (1995). “Automating the Maintenance of Hydraulic Network Model Demand Database Utilizing GIS and Customer Billing Records.” Proceedings of the AWWA Computer Conference, American Water Works Association, Norfolk, Virginia.
[5] Bowen, P. T., Harp, J., Baxter, J., and Shull, R. (1993). Residential Water Use Patterns. AWWARF, Denver, Colorado.
[6] Brainard, B. (1994). “Using Electronic Rate of Flow Recorders.” Proceedings of the AWWA Distribution System Symposium, American Water Works Association, Omaha, Nebraska.
[7] Buchberger, S. G., and Wells, G. J. (1996). “Intensity, Duration, and Frequency of Residential Water Demands.” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 122(1), 11.
[8] Buchberger, S. G., and Wu, L. (1995). “A Model for Instantaneous Residential Water Demands.” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 121(3), 232.
[9] Cesario, L. 1995. Modeling, Analysis, and Design of Water Distribution Systems. Denver, Colo.: AWWA.
[10] Clark, R.M. (2012). Modeling Water Quality in Drinking Water Systems Second Edition. AWWA
[11] Clark, R.M., and D. L. Tippen. (1990). “Water Supply” in Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. Edited by Robert A. Corbitt, NY, McGraw-Hill, Chapter (5), 173-220.
[12] Grayman, W. M., Clark, R. M., and Males, R. M. (1988). “Modeling Distribution System Water Quality: Dynamic Approach.” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 114(3).
[13] Gullick, R.W., M.W. LeChevallier, R.C. Svindland, and M. Friedman. 2004. Occurrence of Transient Low and Negative Pressures in Distribution Systems. Journal AWWA, 96(11):52–66.
[14] Haestad Methods,Thomas M. Walski,Donald V. Chase, Dragan A. Savic, Walter Grayman, Stephen Beckwith, Edmundo Koelle.(2003). ADVANCED WATER DISTRIBUTION MODELING AND MANAGEMENT. First Edition, Second Printing.
[15] Males, R. M., Clark, R. M., Wehrman, P. J., and Gates, W. E. (1985). “An Algorithm for Mixing Problems in Water Systems.” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 111(2).
[16] National Research Council (NRC). 2006. Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Assessing and Reducing Risks. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 15–46.
[17] Panguluri, S., W.M. Grayman, and R.M. Clark. 2005. Distribution System Water Quality Report: A Guide to the Assessment and Management of Drinking Water Quality in Distribution Systems. Cincinnati, Ohio: USEPA Office of Research and Development.
[18] Santiago Arnalich, Maxim Fortin, Amelia Jimenez (2011). Epanet and development (How to calculate water network by computer), Arnalich, Printed by Amazon.